Poland
in Eastern Europe
Europe

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Zloty - PLN
Spoken languages:
Polish
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, E)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
PL
Internet top level domain:
.pl
Country phone prefix:
+48
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Poland

Poland with its capital Warsaw is located in Europe (Central Europe, east of Germany). It covers some 312,686 square kilometers (about twice the size of Georgia) with 38,476,300 citizens. Polish is the language commonly spoken used by the people in Poland. Belarus, Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine are bordering countries.

Polandis a large country in Central Europe. It has a long Baltic Sea coastline and is bordered by Belarus, the Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast), Slovakia, and Ukraine. Ever since Poland joined the European Union, international travellers have rapidly rediscovered the country's rich cultural heritage, stunning historic sites and just gorgeous array of landscapes. Whether you're looking for architecture, urban vibes or a taste of the past: Poland's bustling cities and towns offer something for everyone. If you'd rather get away from the crowds and enjoy nature, the country's vast natural areas provide anything from dense forests, high peaks and lush hills to beaches and lake reserves.

Impressions from the Polish capital

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Popular Destinations in Poland

Administrative regions of Poland

About the country

The landscape is mostly flat plain and mountains along southern border. The average density of population is about 123 per km². The climate in Poland can be described as temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation with mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers. Potential threats by nature are flooding.

To reach someone Poland dial +48 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".pl". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, E). The sign for the locally used currency Zloty is PLN.

Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field.

Flag of Poland

Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 71) 312,685sq km
Land (World Rank: 69) 304,255sq km
Water (World Rank: 53) 8,430sq km
Forest (World Rank: 124) 10.70%
Comparative about twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
Coastline
440
Landborder
3071
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 42) -2m
Highest point (World Rank: 103) 2,499m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 71) 48.20%
Arable (World Rank: 22) 36.20%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 112) 1.30%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 124) 10.70%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 96) 970sq km
Map reference
Europe
Environment
Issues
  • - air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage
  • - as is disposal of hazardous wastes
  • - decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment
  • - water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Antarctic Seals
  • - Antarctic Treaty
  • - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
  • - Antarctic-Marine Living Resources
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Marine Dumping
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed
  • - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
  • - Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • - Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Hazzards flooding
Location
Central Europe, east of Germany
Climate
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrain
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 36) 38,476,300
Deathrate (World Rank: 32) 1.04%
Birthrate (World Rank: 199) 0.95%
Growthrate (World Rank: 200) -0.13%
Migration rate (World Rank: 88) -0.04%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 212) 1.35%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 48) 39.00
Female (World Rank: 44) 42.40
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 60) 2,919,350
0 14 female (World Rank: 60) 2,757,920
15 24 male (World Rank: 53) 2,113,360
15 24 female (World Rank: 54) 2,003,030
25 54 male (World Rank: 32) 8,447,420
25 54 female (World Rank: 32) 8,283,760
55 64 male (World Rank: 25) 2,586,100
55 64 female (World Rank: 25) 2,880,030
65 x male (World Rank: 21) 2,560,850
65 x female (World Rank: 19) 3,924,450
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 181) 0.44%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 66) 78years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 54) 82years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 80) 74years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 68) 2.27
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 17) 6.50
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 56) 97.20%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 67) 23.10%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 76) 98.30%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 26) 152,100,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 24) 141,300,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 18) 12,020,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 17) 14,020,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 92) 77.70%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 142) 1.60%
Source renew (World Rank: 32) 18.80%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 67) 20,100bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 64) 4,520bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 20) 490,300bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 68) 137,800,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 29) 557,700bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 32) 578,200bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 36) 135,000bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 35) 173,500bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 47) 6,132,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 38) 26,780,000,000
Export (World Rank: 49) 56,000,000
Import (World Rank: 6) 0
Carbon footprint
296000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 77) 5% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 50) 2% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 95) 6% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 96) -3% of GDP
National symbol
white eagle
National colours
white
Adjective
Polish
Noun
Pole(s)
Background
Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 24) 1,051,000,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 107) 2.60%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 65) 27,700USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 164) 2.40%
Source industry (World Rank: 22) 40.20%
Source service (World Rank: 96) 64.20%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 36) 17,640,000
In poverty (World Rank: 117) 17.60%
Products
Industries
  • - beverages
  • - chemicals
  • - coal mining
  • - food processing
  • - glass
  • - iron
  • - machine building
  • - shipbuilding
  • - steel
  • - textiles
Agriculture
  • - dairy
  • - eggs
  • - fruits
  • - pork
  • - potatoes
  • - poultry
  • - vegetables
  • - wheat
Exports
  • - food
  • - intermediate manufactured goods
  • - live animals
  • - machinery
  • - miscellaneous manufactured goods
  • - transport equipment
Imports
  • - chemicals
  • - fuels
  • - intermediate manufactured goods
  • - lubricants
  • - machinery
  • - minerals
  • - related materials
  • - transport equipment

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 20) 9,345,000
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 71) 24.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 33) 145.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 27) 28,237,800
Population (World Rank: 67) 73.30%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 28) 87.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 71) 39.00
Heliports (World Rank: 31) 6.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 15) 19,231
Road
Total length (World Rank: 17) 417,026
Paved length (World Rank: 13) 287,650
Unpaved length (World Rank: 18) 129,376
Water
Total length (World Rank: 28) 3,997