Russia
in Eastern Europe
Europe

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Ruble - RUB
Spoken languages:
Russian, Tatar, Komi, Chechen, Chuvash, Bashkir
Local electricity:
220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
RU
Internet top level domain:
.ru
Country phone prefix:
+7
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Russia

Russia with its capital Moscow is located in Europe (North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean). It covers some 17,098,201 square kilometers (approximately 1.8 times the size of the US) with 142,258,000 citizens. Russian, Tatar, Komi, Chechen, Chuvash and Bashkir are the common languages used in Russia (consider regional differences). Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland and Ukraine are bordering countries.

Russiaofficially known as the Russian Federation — is the world's largest country, spanning Eastern Europe, and northern Asia, sharing land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine to the west , Georgia (including the disputed regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Azerbaijan to the southwest, and Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, North Korea to the east and much of the south. Russia is immense, and extraordinarily long on attractions for visitors, although many lie in the hard-to-reach stretches of the planet's most remote lands. The best known sights are in and around the nation's principal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Russia's history is the number one reason why tourists come to this country, following the draw of its fascinating, sometimes surreal, oftentimes brutal, and always consequential national saga.

Impressions from the Russian capital

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Popular Destinations in Russia

Administrative regions of Russia

About the country

The landscape is broad plain with low hills west of Urals with vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia as well as uplands and mountains along southern border regions. The average density of population is about 8 per km². The climate in Russia can be described as ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russiasubarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north, winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia, summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast. Potential threats by nature are permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development, significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's, spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia, volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands and volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

To reach someone Russia dial +7 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ru". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Ruble is RUB.

Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red.

Flag of Russia

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 1) 17,098,200sq km
Land (World Rank: 1) 16,377,700sq km
Water (World Rank: 2) 720,500sq km
Forest (World Rank: 152) 5.70%
Comparative approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Coastline
37653
Landborder
22408
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 56) -28m
Highest point (World Rank: 20) 5,642m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 181) 13.10%
Arable (World Rank: 133) 7.30%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 177) 0.10%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 152) 5.70%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 13) 43,000sq km
Map reference
Asia
Environment
Issues
  • - abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
  • - air pollution from heavy industry
  • - and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts
  • - and transportation in major cities
  • - deforestation
  • - emissions of coal-fired electric plants
  • - groundwater contamination from toxic waste
  • - industrial
  • - municipal
  • - scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination
  • - soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals
  • - soil erosion
  • - urban solid waste management
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
  • - Air Pollution-Sulfur 85
  • - Antarctic Seals
  • - Antarctic Treaty
  • - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
  • - Antarctic-Marine Living Resources
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Marine Dumping
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Tropical Timber 83
  • - Wetlands
  • - Whaling
Agreement signed Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Hazzards
  • - permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development
  • - significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's
  • - spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
  • - volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands
  • - volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula
Location
North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
Climate
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 9) 142,258,000
Deathrate (World Rank: 9) 1.35%
Birthrate (World Rank: 176) 1.10%
Growthrate (World Rank: 199) -0.08%
Migration rate (World Rank: 50) 0.17%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 176) 1.61%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 62) 36.60
Female (World Rank: 43) 42.50
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 14) 12,509,600
0 14 female (World Rank: 14) 11,843,300
15 24 male (World Rank: 15) 6,881,880
15 24 female (World Rank: 15) 6,572,190
25 54 male (World Rank: 7) 31,221,000
25 54 female (World Rank: 8) 32,375,500
55 64 male (World Rank: 6) 8,849,710
55 64 female (World Rank: 5) 11,693,100
65 x male (World Rank: 8) 6,352,560
65 x female (World Rank: 5) 13,958,800
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 159) 0.68%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 151) 71years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 125) 77years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 165) 65years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 32) 3.31
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 6) 9.70
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 139) 72.20%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 68) 23.10%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 95) 96.90%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 4) 1,008,000,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 5) 890,100,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 15) 13,130,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 49) 3,194,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 105) 70.20%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 113) 9.70%
Source renew (World Rank: 142) 0.60%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 1) 10,550,000bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 2) 5,116,000bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 68) 15,110bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 8) 80,000,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 3) 6,174,000bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 5) 3,594,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 2) 3,133,000bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 81) 47,770bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 2) 598,600,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 3) 418,900,000,000
Export (World Rank: 1) 197,700,000,000
Import (World Rank: 31) 0
Carbon footprint
1756000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 111) 4% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 8) 5% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 80) 7% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 122) -3% of GDP
National symbol
double-headed eagle
National colours
white
Adjective
Russian
Noun
Russian(s)
Background
Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 6) 3,862,000,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 187) -0.20%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 69) 26,900USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 129) 4.70%
Source industry (World Rank: 64) 32.50%
Source service (World Rank: 105) 62.10%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 6) 76,640,000
In poverty (World Rank: 142) 13.30%
Products
Industries
  • - advanced electronic components
  • - agricultural machinery
  • - all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft
  • - chemicals
  • - communications equipment
  • - complete range of mining
  • - construction equipment
  • - consumer durables
  • - defense industries including radar
  • - electric power generating
  • - extractive industries producing coal
  • - foodstuffs
  • - gas
  • - handicrafts
  • - medical
  • - metals
  • - missile production
  • - oil
  • - rail transportation equipment
  • - road
  • - scientific instruments
  • - shipbuilding
  • - space vehicles
  • - textiles
  • - tractors
  • - transmitting equipment
Agriculture
  • - beef
  • - fruits
  • - grain
  • - milk
  • - sugar beets
  • - sunflower seeds
  • - vegetables
Exports
  • - a wide variety of civilian
  • - chemicals
  • - metals
  • - military manufactures
  • - natural gas
  • - petroleum
  • - petroleum products
  • - wood
  • - wood products
Imports
  • - fruits
  • - iron
  • - machinery
  • - meat
  • - medical instruments
  • - nuts
  • - optical
  • - pharmaceutical products
  • - plastic
  • - semi-finished metal products
  • - steel
  • - vehicles

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 8) 32,276,600
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 73) 23.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 18) 163.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 6) 108,772,000
Population (World Rank: 58) 76.40%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 3) 594
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 9) 624
Heliports (World Rank: 5) 49.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 3) 87,157
Road
Total length (World Rank: 5) 1,283,390
Paved length (World Rank: 5) 927,721
Unpaved length (World Rank: 8) 355,666
Water
Total length (World Rank: 2) 102,000