Kazakhstan
in Central Asia
Asia

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Tenge - KZT
Spoken languages:
Kazakh, Russian
Local electricity:
220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
KZ
Internet top level domain:
.kz
Country phone prefix:
+7
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan with its capital Astana is located in Asia (Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe). It covers some 2,724,901 square kilometers (slightly less than four times the size of Texas) with a population of 18,556,700. Kazakh and Russian are the languages spoken by people in Kazakhstan. China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are bordering countries.

Kazakhstan is by far the largest of the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union. Since its cold and windy weather conditions visiting saunas with friends is very popular in Kazakhstan. Saunas (Russian banyas or Finnish steam rooms) are an excellent place to discuss business issues or just socialize with friends. Having parties (birthdays, New Year, etc) in saunas is a normal practice.

Impressions from the Kazakhstani capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what New Delhi is like. We have selected more pictures from New Delhi on our dedicated gallery page.

Popular Destinations in Kazakhstan

Administrative regions of Kazakhstan

About the country

The topography is vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south. The average density of population is about 7 per km². The climate in Kazakhstan can be described as continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid. Potential natural disasters are earthquakes in the south mudslides around Almaty

To reach someone Kazakhstan dial +7 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".kz". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Tenge is KZT.

A gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future.

Flag of Kazakhstan

Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) further skewed the ethnic mixture. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70% Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 10) 2,724,900sq km
Land (World Rank: 10) 2,699,700sq km
Water (World Rank: 21) 25,200sq km
Forest (World Rank: 12) 68.50%
Comparative slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Landborder
13364
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 68) -132m
Highest point (World Rank: 9) 6,995m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 9) 77.40%
Arable (World Rank: 122) 8.90%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 12) 68.50%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 28) 20,660sq km
Map reference
Asia
Environment
Issues
  • - because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation
  • - industrial pollution is severe in some cities
  • - it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts
  • - pollution in the Caspian Sea
  • - radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals
  • - soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
  • - these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Hazzards
  • - earthquakes in the south
  • - mudslides around Almaty
Location
Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe
Climate
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrain
vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 62) 18,556,700
Deathrate (World Rank: 88) 0.81%
Birthrate (World Rank: 96) 1.81%
Growthrate (World Rank: 107) 1.04%
Migration rate (World Rank: 62) 0.04%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 93) 2.25%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 117) 29.30
Female (World Rank: 103) 31.90
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 73) 2,374,430
0 14 female (World Rank: 71) 2,434,210
15 24 male (World Rank: 71) 1,329,380
15 24 female (World Rank: 71) 1,277,620
25 54 male (World Rank: 58) 3,847,280
25 54 female (World Rank: 57) 4,024,050
55 64 male (World Rank: 50) 810,019
55 64 female (World Rank: 46) 1,040,920
65 x male (World Rank: 67) 494,064
65 x female (World Rank: 54) 924,734
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 81) 1.96%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 149) 71years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 133) 76years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 162) 66years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 33) 3.27
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 12) 7.20
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 55) 97.50%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 94) 21.00%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 125) 92.90%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 35) 100,400,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 33) 95,260,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 46) 1,614,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 57) 1,618,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 76) 86.10%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 107) 13.30%
Source renew (World Rank: 140) 0.80%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 16) 1,595,000bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 13) 1,292,000bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 37) 145,800bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 12) 30,000,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 46) 228,600bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 56) 186,300bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 107) 846bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 87) 44,490bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 29) 21,380,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 49) 13,100,000,000
Export (World Rank: 19) 13,700,000,000
Import (World Rank: 14) 0
Carbon footprint
257800000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 134) 3% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 128) 1% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 157) 4% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 47) -0% of GDP
National symbol
golden eagle
National colours
yellow
Adjective
Kazakhstani
Noun
Kazakhstani(s)
Background
Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) further skewed the ethnic mixture. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70% Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.
Flag description
a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 41) 451,200,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 168) 1.10%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 75) 25,200USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 128) 4.80%
Source industry (World Rank: 51) 33.90%
Source service (World Rank: 111) 61.30%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 53) 8,999,000
In poverty (World Rank: 168) 2.70%
Products
Industries
  • - bauxite
  • - chromite
  • - coal
  • - construction materials
  • - copper
  • - electric motors
  • - gold
  • - iron
  • - iron ore
  • - lead
  • - manganese
  • - oil
  • - other agricultural machinery
  • - phosphates
  • - silver
  • - steel
  • - sulfur
  • - titanium
  • - tractors
  • - uranium
  • - zinc
Agriculture
  • - barley
  • - grain
  • - livestock
  • - melons
  • - mostly spring wheat
  • - potatoes
  • - vegetables
Exports
  • - chemicals
  • - coal
  • - ferrous metals
  • - grain
  • - machinery
  • - meat
  • - natural gas
  • - oil
  • - oil products
  • - wool
Imports
  • - equipment
  • - foodstuffs
  • - machinery
  • - metal products

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 37) 3,931,100
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 81) 21.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 43) 138.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 40) 14,100,800
Population (World Rank: 56) 76.80%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 40) 63.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 79) 33.00
Heliports (World Rank: 43) 3.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 19) 14,184
Road
Total length (World Rank: 48) 97,418
Paved length (World Rank: 31) 87,140
Unpaved length (World Rank: 85) 10,278
Water
Total length (World Rank: 26) 4,000