Turkmenistan
in Central Asia
Asia

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Manat - TMM
Spoken languages:
Turkmen, Russian, Uzbek
Local electricity:
220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
TM
Internet top level domain:
.tm
Country phone prefix:
+993
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan with its capital Ashgabat is located in Asia (Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea). It covers some 488,101 square kilometers (slightly more than three times the size of Georgia) with 5,351,280 citizens. Turkmen, Russian and Uzbek are the common languages used in Turkmenistan (consider regional differences). Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are bordering countries.

Turkmenistanis a country in Central Asia with a population of about 5 million, and an area around half a million km2, or almost the size of Spain. Turkmenistan is one of just two Stalinist countries in existence (the other being North Korea) and the government is in firm control of nearly everything, although, surprisingly, tourism is welcomed as long as you don't discuss politics or omnipresent police/military.

Impressions from the Turkmenistani capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what New Delhi is like. We have selected more pictures from New Delhi on our dedicated gallery page.

Popular Destinations in Turkmenistan

Administrative regions of Turkmenistan

About the country

The topography is flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south with low mountains along border with Iran as well as borders Caspian Sea in west. The average density of population is about 11 per km². The climate in Turkmenistan can be described as subtropical desert. Potential natural disasters are droughts, dust storms, earthquakes, floods and mudslides.

To reach someone Turkmenistan dial +993 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".tm". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Manat is TMM.

Green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life.

Flag of Turkmenistan

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times, Merv (located in present-day Mary province) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. The Government of Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects and has attempted to diversify its gas export routes beyond Russia's pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. In 2016, Russia and Iran halted their purchase of gas from Turkmenistan making China the only buyer of Turkmen gas. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president. He was reelected in 2012 and again in 2017 with over 97% of the vote in both instances, in elections widely regarded as undemocratic.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 54) 488,100sq km
Land (World Rank: 53) 469,930sq km
Water (World Rank: 32) 18,170sq km
Forest (World Rank: 14) 67.80%
Comparative slightly more than three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Landborder
4158
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 64) -81m
Highest point (World Rank: 60) 3,139m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 20) 72.00%
Arable (World Rank: 158) 4.10%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 185) 0.10%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 14) 67.80%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 29) 19,950sq km
Map reference
Asia
Environment
Issues
  • - Caspian Sea pollution
  • - contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals
  • - desertification
  • - diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea
  • - pesticides
  • - salination
  • - water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods
Agreement party
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
Hazzards
  • - droughts
  • - dust storms
  • - earthquakes
  • - floods
  • - mudslides
Location
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Climate
subtropical desert
Terrain
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 119) 5,351,280
Deathrate (World Rank: 155) 0.61%
Birthrate (World Rank: 85) 1.91%
Growthrate (World Rank: 101) 1.12%
Migration rate (World Rank: 121) -0.18%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 110) 2.07%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 136) 27.50
Female (World Rank: 134) 28.40
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 112) 699,612
0 14 female (World Rank: 112) 680,583
15 24 male (World Rank: 108) 495,025
15 24 female (World Rank: 108) 488,930
25 54 male (World Rank: 113) 1,147,040
25 54 female (World Rank: 113) 1,163,760
55 64 male (World Rank: 115) 199,363
55 64 female (World Rank: 116) 223,443
65 x male (World Rank: 131) 110,505
65 x female (World Rank: 132) 143,010
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 56) 3.43%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 156) 70years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 153) 74years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 151) 67years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 67) 2.29
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 50) 4.00
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 31) 99.10%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 116) 18.60%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 178) 71.10%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 73) 21,180,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 78) 15,090,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 40) 3,201,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 14) 100.00%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 34) 230,800bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 40) 62,880bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 45) 600,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 50) 191,100bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 65) 158,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 49) 53,780bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 9) 83,700,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 19) 67,520,000,000
Export (World Rank: 8) 40,300,000,000
Carbon footprint
67000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 135) 3% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 190) 2% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 66) -1% of GDP
National symbol
Akhal-Teke horse
National colours
white
Adjective
Turkmen
Noun
Turkmen(s)
Background
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times, Merv (located in present-day Mary province) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. The Government of Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects and has attempted to diversify its gas export routes beyond Russia's pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. In 2016, Russia and Iran halted their purchase of gas from Turkmenistan making China the only buyer of Turkmen gas. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president. He was reelected in 2012 and again in 2017 with over 97% of the vote in both instances, in elections widely regarded as undemocratic.
Flag description
green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 84) 95,500,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 23) 6.20%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 93) 17,500USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 107) 7.50%
Source industry (World Rank: 13) 45.10%
Source service (World Rank: 183) 47.40%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 116) 2,305,000
In poverty (World Rank: 170) 0.20%
Products
Industries
  • - food processing
  • - natural gas
  • - oil
  • - petroleum products
  • - textiles
Agriculture
  • - cotton
  • - grain
  • - livestock
  • - melons
Exports
  • - cotton fiber
  • - crude oil
  • - gas
  • - petrochemicals
  • - textiles
Imports
  • - chemicals
  • - equipment
  • - foodstuffs
  • - machinery

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 89) 665,000
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 124) 13.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 19) 162.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 131) 951,925
Population (World Rank: 193) 18.00%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 79) 21.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 151) 5.00
Heliports (World Rank: 81) 1.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 61) 2,980
Road
Total length (World Rank: 72) 58,592
Paved length (World Rank: 47) 47,577
Unpaved length (World Rank: 78) 11,015
Water
Total length (World Rank: 55) 1,300