Iran
in Southern Asia
Asia

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Rial - IRR
Spoken languages:
Persian, Kurdish
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
IR
Internet top level domain:
.ir
Country phone prefix:
+98
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours
Current travel safety evaluation for Iran in Southern Asia

Safety Score: 3,3 of 5.0 based on data from 6 authorites. Meaning please reconsider your need to travel to Iran.

Travel warnings are updated daily. Source: Travel Warning Iran. Last Update: 2018-12-15 07:19:03

Explore Iran

Iran with its capital Tehran is located in Asia (Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman). It covers some 1,648,201 square kilometers (almost 2.5 times the size of Texas) with a population of 82,021,600. Persian and Kurdish are the languages spoken by people in Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan are bordering countries.

Iran is a large country between the Middle East and Central Asia, between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea. Though the northern part of Iran is covered by dense rain forests called Shomal or the Jungles of Iran. The eastern parts consists mostly of desert basins such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert, in the north-central portion of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut, in the east, as well as some salt lakes.

Impressions from the Iranian capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what New Delhi is like. We have selected more pictures from New Delhi on our dedicated gallery page.

Popular Destinations in Iran

Administrative regions of Iran

About the country

Website: Iran Tourism

The terrain is rugged, mountainous rim with high, central basin with deserts, mountains as well as small, discontinuous plains along both coasts. The average density of population is about 50 per km². The climate in Iran can be described as mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast. Possible natural disasters include dust storms, sandstorms, earthquakes and periodic droughts, floods.

To reach someone Iran dial +98 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ir". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Rial is IRR.

Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom.

Flag of Iran

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts (AOE) - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud, but the protests were quickly suppressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran's internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADI-NEJAD's independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a moderate conservative cleric Dr. Hasan Fereidun RUHANI to the presidency. He is a longtime senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran's foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, and in July 2015 Iran and the five permanent members, plus Germany (P5+1) signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) under which Iran agreed to restrictions on its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief. Iran held elections in 2016 for the AOE and Majles, resulting in a conservative-controlled AOE and a Majles that many Iranians perceive as more supportive of the RUHANI administration than the previous, conservative-dominated body. Iran will hold presidential elections in May 2017. RUHANI is currently favored to win a second term.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 19) 1,648,200sq km
Land (World Rank: 19) 1,531,600sq km
Water (World Rank: 7) 116,600sq km
Forest (World Rank: 101) 18.10%
Comparative almost 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
Coastline
2440
Landborder
5894
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 57) -28m
Highest point (World Rank: 22) 5,625m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 137) 30.10%
Arable (World Rank: 105) 10.80%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 113) 1.20%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 101) 18.10%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 5) 95,530sq km
Map reference
Middle East
Environment
Issues
  • - air pollution
  • - and industrial effluents
  • - deforestation
  • - desertification
  • - especially in urban areas
  • - from vehicle emissions
  • - inadequate supplies of potable water
  • - oil pollution in the Persian Gulf
  • - overgrazing
  • - refinery operations
  • - soil degradation (salination)
  • - urbanization
  • - water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste
  • - wetland losses from drought
Agreement party
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Marine Dumping
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Marine Life Conservation
Hazzards
  • - dust storms, sandstorms
  • - earthquakes
  • - periodic droughts, floods
Location
Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Climate
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terrain
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 17) 82,021,600
Deathrate (World Rank: 183) 0.53%
Birthrate (World Rank: 101) 1.79%
Growthrate (World Rank: 90) 1.24%
Migration rate (World Rank: 75) -0.02%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 121) 1.97%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 108) 30.00
Female (World Rank: 113) 30.50
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 18) 10,154,400
0 14 female (World Rank: 18) 9,690,510
15 24 male (World Rank: 18) 6,174,440
15 24 female (World Rank: 17) 5,878,480
25 54 male (World Rank: 13) 20,316,800
25 54 female (World Rank: 13) 19,522,700
55 64 male (World Rank: 20) 2,920,110
55 64 female (World Rank: 23) 2,999,520
65 x male (World Rank: 25) 2,026,590
65 x female (World Rank: 26) 2,338,040
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 98) 1.59%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 127) 74years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 140) 76years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 106) 73years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 94) 1.49
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 182) 0.10
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 99) 90.00%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 47) 25.80%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 102) 96.20%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 16) 265,100,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 18) 220,900,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 28) 6,822,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 44) 4,148,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 82) 83.20%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 145) 1.30%
Source renew (World Rank: 155) 0.20%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 5) 4,068,000bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 12) 1,342,000bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 60) 33,710bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 4) 158,400,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 11) 1,801,000bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 12) 1,922,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 27) 272,600bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 82) 47,750bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 3) 184,800,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 8) 186,000,000,000
Export (World Rank: 24) 8,380,000,000
Import (World Rank: 67) 0
Carbon footprint
650400000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 142) 3% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 33) 3% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 84) 7% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 97) -3% of GDP
National symbol
lion
National colours
white
Adjective
Iranian
Noun
Iranian(s)
Background
Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts (AOE) - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud, but the protests were quickly suppressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran's internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADI-NEJAD's independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a moderate conservative cleric Dr. Hasan Fereidun RUHANI to the presidency. He is a longtime senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran's foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, and in July 2015 Iran and the five permanent members, plus Germany (P5+1) signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) under which Iran agreed to restrictions on its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief. Iran held elections in 2016 for the AOE and Majles, resulting in a conservative-controlled AOE and a Majles that many Iranians perceive as more supportive of the RUHANI administration than the previous, conservative-dominated body. Iran will hold presidential elections in May 2017. RUHANI is currently favored to win a second term.
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 18) 1,549,000,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 1) 12.50%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 86) 19,300USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 91) 9.80%
Source industry (World Rank: 49) 34.30%
Source service (World Rank: 147) 55.90%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 21) 29,750,000
In poverty (World Rank: 114) 18.70%
Products
Industries
  • - armaments
  • - caustic soda
  • - cement
  • - ferrous
  • - fertilizer
  • - food processing particularly sugar refining
  • - gas
  • - nonferrous metal fabrication
  • - other construction materials
  • - petrochemicals
  • - petroleum
  • - textiles
  • - vegetable oil production
Agriculture
  • - caviar
  • - cotton
  • - dairy products
  • - fruits
  • - grains
  • - nuts
  • - rice
  • - sugar beets
  • - sugarcane
  • - wheat
  • - wool
Exports
  • - carpets
  • - cement
  • - chemical
  • - fruits
  • - nuts
  • - ore
  • - petrochemical products
  • - petroleum
Imports
  • - capital goods
  • - foodstuffs
  • - industrial supplies
  • - other consumer goods
  • - technical services

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 9) 30,818,000
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 47) 37.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 143) 91.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 20) 36,070,000
Population (World Rank: 134) 44.10%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 17) 140.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 20) 179.00
Heliports (World Rank: 9) 26.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 25) 8,484
Road
Total length (World Rank: 27) 198,866
Paved length (World Rank: 18) 160,366
Unpaved length (World Rank: 41) 38,500
Water
Total length (World Rank: 71) 850