Turkey
in Western Asia
Asia

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Lira - TRY
Spoken languages:
Turkish, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Avaric
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
TR
Internet top level domain:
.tr
Country phone prefix:
+90
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours
Current travel safety evaluation for Turkey in Western Asia

Safety Score: 3,1 of 5.0 based on data from 9 authorites. Meaning please reconsider your need to travel to Turkey.

Travel warnings are updated daily. Source: Travel Warning Turkey. Last Update: 2019-06-26 07:24:07

Explore Turkey

Turkey with its capital Ankara is located in Asia (Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea). It covers some 783,563 square kilometers (slightly larger than Texas) with a population of 80,845,200. Turkish, Kurdish, Azerbaijani and Avaric are the languages spoken by people in Turkey (consider regional differences). Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq and Syria are bordering countries.

Turkey is on the Mediterranean, in the Anatolian region of West Asia, with a small section in Southeastern Europe separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). As a general rule, most museums and sites of ancient cities in Turkey are closed on Mondays, although there are numerous exceptions to this. At the crossroads of civilizations, all parts of Turkey are full of a mindblowing number of ancient ruins. While Turkey is rightly renowned for its warm Mediterranean beaches, wintersports, especially skiing, is very much a possibility—and indeed a popular activity—in the mountainous interior of the country between October and April, with a guaranteed stable snowcover and constant below freezing temperatures between December and March. Some more eastern resorts have longer periods of snowcover.

Popular Destinations in Turkey

Administrative regions of Turkey

About the country

Website: Turkey Tourism

Mail: ny@tourismturkey.org

The topography is high central plateau (Anatolia) with narrow coastal plain as well as several mountain ranges. The average density of population is about 103 per km². The climate in Turkey can be described as temperatehot, dry summers with mild, wet winters, harsher in interior. Potential natural disasters are flooding, landslides, limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier and severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van.

To reach someone Turkey dial +90 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".tr". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Lira is TRY.

Red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors.

Flag of Turkey

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years. From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 38) 783,562sq km
Land (World Rank: 37) 769,632sq km
Water (World Rank: 38) 13,930sq km
Forest (World Rank: 94) 19.00%
Comparative slightly larger than Texas
Coastline
7200
Landborder
2816
Elevation
Highest point (World Rank: 25) 5,137m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 70) 49.70%
Arable (World Rank: 38) 26.70%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 64) 4.00%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 94) 19.00%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 11) 52,150sq km
Map reference
Middle East
Environment
Issues
  • - air pollution
  • - concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
  • - deforestation
  • - particularly in urban areas
  • - water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Antarctic Treaty
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed Environmental Modification
Hazzards
  • - flooding
  • - landslides
  • - limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
  • - severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Location
Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Climate
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 18) 80,845,200
Deathrate (World Rank: 160) 0.60%
Birthrate (World Rank: 118) 1.57%
Growthrate (World Rank: 153) 0.52%
Migration rate (World Rank: 151) -0.45%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 115) 2.01%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 105) 30.50
Female (World Rank: 107) 31.40
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 17) 10,209,300
0 14 female (World Rank: 17) 9,745,060
15 24 male (World Rank: 16) 6,601,470
15 24 female (World Rank: 16) 6,324,280
25 54 male (World Rank: 16) 17,691,700
25 54 female (World Rank: 16) 17,243,400
55 64 male (World Rank: 19) 3,448,230
55 64 female (World Rank: 19) 3,492,200
65 x male (World Rank: 20) 2,712,320
65 x female (World Rank: 22) 3,377,240
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 91) 1.76%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 112) 75years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 118) 78years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 105) 73years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 83) 1.75
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 90) 2.50
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 74) 94.90%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 17) 32.10%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 31) 100.00%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 18) 245,800,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 19) 213,200,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 48) 1,442,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 32) 6,400,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 138) 56.80%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 56) 35.40%
Source renew (World Rank: 64) 11.20%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 54) 49,500bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 19) 506,300bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 53) 388,500,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 28) 618,300bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 23) 943,700bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 37) 134,900bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 15) 527,700bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 72) 381,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 14) 81,350,000,000
Export (World Rank: 40) 624,000,000
Import (World Rank: 22) 0
Carbon footprint
319000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 82) 5% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 63) 2% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 130) 5% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 63) -1% of GDP
National symbol
star and crescent
National colours
white
Adjective
Turkish
Noun
Turk(s)
Background
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years. From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.
Flag description
red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 13) 1,994,000,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 89) 3.20%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 76) 25,000USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 112) 6.90%
Source industry (World Rank: 66) 32.30%
Source service (World Rank: 115) 60.80%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 18) 30,550,000
In poverty (World Rank: 97) 21.90%
Products
Industries
  • - automobiles
  • - boron
  • - chromate
  • - coal
  • - construction
  • - copper
  • - electronics
  • - food processing
  • - lumber
  • - mining
  • - paper
  • - petroleum
  • - steel
  • - textiles
Agriculture
  • - citrus
  • - cotton
  • - grain
  • - hazelnuts
  • - livestock
  • - olives
  • - pulses
  • - sugar beets
  • - tobacco
Exports
  • - apparel
  • - foodstuffs
  • - metal manufactures
  • - textiles
  • - transport equipment
Imports
  • - chemicals
  • - fuels
  • - machinery
  • - semi-finished goods
  • - transport equipment

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 17) 11,077,600
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 119) 14.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 140) 94.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 15) 46,838,400
Population (World Rank: 101) 58.30%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 25) 91.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 139) 7.00
Heliports (World Rank: 14) 20.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 21) 12,008
Road
Total length (World Rank: 19) 385,754
Paved length (World Rank: 12) 352,268
Unpaved length (World Rank: 47) 33,486
Water
Total length (World Rank: 60) 1,200