Syria
in Western Asia
Asia

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Pound - SYP
Spoken languages:
Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian, French, English
Local electricity:
220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, E, L)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G
ISO 2-Letter code:
SY
Internet top level domain:
.sy
Country phone prefix:
+963
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours
Current travel safety evaluation for Syria in Western Asia

Safety Score: 5,0 of 5.0 based on data from 6 authorites. Meaning it is not safe to travel Syria.

Travel warnings are updated daily. Source: Travel Warning Syria. Last Update: 2018-12-15 07:19:03

Explore Syria

Syria with its capital Damascus is located in Asia (Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea). It covers some 185,181 square kilometers (slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Pennsylvania) with 18,028,500 citizens. Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian, French and English are the common languages used in Syria (consider regional differences). Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey are bordering countries.

Trave to Syria is strongly discouraged due to a state of severe political crisis. Since January 2011, the unrest within the country has continued to intensify and thousands of people have been injured or killed by government security forces. There also have been reports of some fighting between troops who have cast their lot with anti-government demonstrators and others who remain loyal to the government.

Impressions from the Syrian capital

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Popular Destinations in Syria

Administrative regions of Syria

About the country

Website: Syria Tourism

P.O.Box 6642
Barda Street
Damascus
Syria

Phone: +963 11 2210122
Fax: +963 11 2242636
Mail: min-tourism@mail.sy

The topography is primarily semiarid and desert plateau with narrow coastal plain as well as mountains in west. The average density of population is about 97 per km². The climate in Syria can be described as mostly deserthot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast, cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus. Potential natural disasters are dust storms, sandstorms Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuries

To reach someone Syria dial +963 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".sy". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, E, L). The sign for the locally used currency Pound is SYP.

Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; two small, green, five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); identical to the former flag of the United Arab Republic (1958-1961) where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; the current design dates to 1980.

Flag of Syria

Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French administered the area as Syria until granting it independence in 1946. The new country lacked political stability and experienced a series of military coups. Syria united with Egypt in February 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In September 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights region to Israel. During the 1990s, Syria and Israel held occasional, albeit unsuccessful, peace talks over its return. In November 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the socialist Ba'th Party and the minority Alawi sect, seized power in a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. Following the death of President Hafiz al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum in July 2000. Syrian troops - stationed in Lebanon since 1976 in an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn in April 2005. During the July-August 2006 conflict between Israel and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah. In May 2007, Bashar al-ASAD's second term as president was approved by popular referendum. Influenced by major uprisings that began elsewhere in the region, and compounded by additional social and economic factors, antigovernment protests broke out first in the southern province of Dar'a in March 2011 with protesters calling for the repeal of the restrictive Emergency Law allowing arrests without charge, the legalization of political parties, and the removal of corrupt local officials. Demonstrations and violent unrest spread across Syria with the size and intensity of protests fluctuating. The government responded to unrest with a mix of concessions - including the repeal of the Emergency Law, new laws permitting new political parties, and liberalizing local and national elections - and with military force and detentions. The government's ongoing violence to quell unrest and widespread armed opposition activity has led to extended clashes between government forces, their allies, and oppositionists. International pressure on the ASAD regime has intensified since late 2011, as the Arab League, the EU, Turkey, and the US expanded economic sanctions against the regime and those entities that support it. In December 2012, the Syrian National Coalition, was recognized by more than 130 countries as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people. Political negotiations between the government and opposition delegations at the UN-sponsored Geneva II conference in 2014 and the UN-sponsored Geneva III talks in 2016 failed to produce a resolution of the conflict. Unrest continues in Syria, and according to an April 2016 UN estimate, the death toll among Syrian Government forces, opposition forces, and civilians was over 400,000. As of December 2016, approximately 13.5 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria, with 6.3 million people displaced internally, and an additional 4.8 million Syrian refugees, making the Syrian situation the largest humanitarian crisis worldwide.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 90) 185,180sq km
Land (World Rank: 88) 183,630sq km
Water (World Rank: 97) 1,550sq km
Forest (World Rank: 27) 44.60%
Comparative slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Pennsylvania
Note includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory
Coastline
193
Landborder
2363
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 72) -208m
Highest point (World Rank: 83) 2,814m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 11) 75.80%
Arable (World Rank: 40) 25.40%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 53) 5.80%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 27) 44.60%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 38) 14,280sq km
Map reference
Middle East
Environment
Issues
  • - deforestation
  • - desertification
  • - inadequate potable water
  • - overgrazing
  • - soil erosion
  • - water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes
Agreement party
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed Environmental Modification
Hazzards
  • - dust storms, sandstorms
  • - Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuries
Location
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey
Climate
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus
Terrain
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 63) 18,028,500
Deathrate (World Rank: 208) 0.40%
Birthrate (World Rank: 75) 2.12%
Growthrate (World Rank: 1) 7.87%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 78) 2.50%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 157) 23.90
Female (World Rank: 160) 24.80
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 59) 2,923,810
0 14 female (World Rank: 59) 2,777,070
15 24 male (World Rank: 58) 1,790,360
15 24 female (World Rank: 59) 1,732,690
25 54 male (World Rank: 60) 3,522,650
25 54 female (World Rank: 61) 3,547,540
55 64 male (World Rank: 74) 482,576
55 64 female (World Rank: 77) 493,085
65 x male (World Rank: 81) 342,407
65 x female (World Rank: 84) 416,347
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 100) 1.48%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 110) 75years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 117) 78years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 107) 73years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 92) 1.55
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 126) 1.50
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 70) 95.70%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 36) 27.80%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 137) 90.10%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 82) 16,830,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 80) 13,960,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 72) 262,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 80) 84.40%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 99) 15.60%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 63) 28,670bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 47) 83,140bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 34) 2,500,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 65) 111,600bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 71) 140,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 77) 12,500bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 89) 41,120bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 53) 4,300,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 64) 4,900,000,000
Import (World Rank: 36) 0
Carbon footprint
49000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 60) 5% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 179) 3% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 190) -10% of GDP
National symbol
hawk
National colours
white
Adjective
Syrian
Noun
Syrian(s)
Background
Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French administered the area as Syria until granting it independence in 1946. The new country lacked political stability and experienced a series of military coups. Syria united with Egypt in February 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In September 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights region to Israel. During the 1990s, Syria and Israel held occasional, albeit unsuccessful, peace talks over its return. In November 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the socialist Ba'th Party and the minority Alawi sect, seized power in a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. Following the death of President Hafiz al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum in July 2000. Syrian troops - stationed in Lebanon since 1976 in an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn in April 2005. During the July-August 2006 conflict between Israel and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah. In May 2007, Bashar al-ASAD's second term as president was approved by popular referendum. Influenced by major uprisings that began elsewhere in the region, and compounded by additional social and economic factors, antigovernment protests broke out first in the southern province of Dar'a in March 2011 with protesters calling for the repeal of the restrictive Emergency Law allowing arrests without charge, the legalization of political parties, and the removal of corrupt local officials. Demonstrations and violent unrest spread across Syria with the size and intensity of protests fluctuating. The government responded to unrest with a mix of concessions - including the repeal of the Emergency Law, new laws permitting new political parties, and liberalizing local and national elections - and with military force and detentions. The government's ongoing violence to quell unrest and widespread armed opposition activity has led to extended clashes between government forces, their allies, and oppositionists. International pressure on the ASAD regime has intensified since late 2011, as the Arab League, the EU, Turkey, and the US expanded economic sanctions against the regime and those entities that support it. In December 2012, the Syrian National Coalition, was recognized by more than 130 countries as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people. Political negotiations between the government and opposition delegations at the UN-sponsored Geneva II conference in 2014 and the UN-sponsored Geneva III talks in 2016 failed to produce a resolution of the conflict. Unrest continues in Syria, and according to an April 2016 UN estimate, the death toll among Syrian Government forces, opposition forces, and civilians was over 400,000. As of December 2016, approximately 13.5 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria, with 6.3 million people displaced internally, and an additional 4.8 million Syrian refugees, making the Syrian situation the largest humanitarian crisis worldwide.
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; two small, green, five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); identical to the former flag of the United Arab Republic (1958-1961) where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; the current design dates to 1980

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 106) 55,800,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 215) -9.90%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 191) 2,900USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 53) 19.50%
Source industry (World Rank: 157) 19.00%
Source service (World Rank: 108) 61.50%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 95) 3,871,000
In poverty (World Rank: 1) 82.50%
Products
Industries
  • - automobile assembly
  • - beverages
  • - cement
  • - food processing
  • - oil seeds crushing
  • - petroleum
  • - phosphate rock mining
  • - textiles
  • - tobacco
Agriculture
  • - barley
  • - beef
  • - chickpeas
  • - cotton
  • - eggs
  • - lentils
  • - milk
  • - mutton
  • - olives
  • - poultry
  • - sugar beets
  • - wheat
Exports
  • - clothing
  • - cotton fiber
  • - crude oil
  • - fruits
  • - live animals
  • - meat
  • - minerals
  • - petroleum products
  • - textiles
  • - vegetables
  • - wheat
Imports
  • - chemical products
  • - chemicals
  • - electric power machinery
  • - food
  • - livestock
  • - machinery
  • - metal
  • - metal products
  • - paper
  • - plastics
  • - transport equipment
  • - yarn

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 42) 3,464,850
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 90) 20.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 176) 72.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 71) 5,476,850
Population (World Rank: 151) 31.90%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 62) 29.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 53) 61.00
Heliports (World Rank: 34) 6.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 75) 2,052
Road
Total length (World Rank: 68) 69,873
Paved length (World Rank: 41) 63,060
Unpaved length (World Rank: 99) 6,813
Water
Total length (World Rank: 70) 900