Ukraine
in Eastern Europe
Europe

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Hryvnia - UAH
Spoken languages:
Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Hungarian
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
UA
Internet top level domain:
.ua
Country phone prefix:
+380
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Ukraine

Ukraine with its capital Kiev is located in Europe (Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea). It covers some 603,551 square kilometers (almost four times the size of Georgia) with 44,033,900 citizens. Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and Hungarian are the languages commonly used by the people in Ukraine (consider regional differences). Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovakia are bordering countries.

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. The quickest way to get around big cities is the so-called marshrutka: the minibuses which follow routes much like the regular buses do. You can generally flag them down or ask them to stop at places other than the specified bus stops. The fare is paid as soon as you get in, and is fixed no matter how far you want to go. Ukrainian cuisine is quite tasty, but just as other cuisines in the region uses a lot of fat ingredients, especially in the festive dishes. Traditional local food includes salo (salted lard) and soups like borshch (борщ in Ukrainian) made of red beets or solianka (солянка in Ukrainian) which is a delicious meat soup.

Impressions from the Ukrainian capital

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Popular Destinations in Ukraine

Administrative regions of Ukraine

About the country

The landscape is mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula. The average density of population is about 73 per km². The climate in Ukraine can be described as temperate continentalMediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast, precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast, winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland, warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south. Potential threats by nature are occasional droughts occasional floods

To reach someone Ukraine dial +380 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ua". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Hryvnia is UAH.

Two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky.

Flag of Ukraine

Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014. Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the "referendum" as baseless and invalid and confiming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 46) 603,550sq km
Land (World Rank: 45) 579,330sq km
Water (World Rank: 24) 24,220sq km
Forest (World Rank: 116) 13.60%
Comparative almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Note approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied
Coastline
2782
Landborder
5618
Elevation
Highest point (World Rank: 121) 2,061m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 22) 71.20%
Arable (World Rank: 4) 56.10%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 103) 1.50%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 116) 13.60%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 27) 21,670sq km
Map reference
Asia, Europe
Environment
Issues
  • - air and water pollution
  • - deforestation
  • - inadequate supplies of potable water
  • - radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
  • - Air Pollution-Sulfur 85
  • - Antarctic Treaty
  • - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
  • - Antarctic-Marine Living Resources
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Marine Dumping
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Agreement signed
  • - Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • - Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
  • - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Hazzards
  • - occasional droughts
  • - occasional floods
Location
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Climate
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Terrain
mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 32) 44,033,900
Deathrate (World Rank: 5) 1.44%
Birthrate (World Rank: 188) 1.03%
Growthrate (World Rank: 214) -0.41%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 188) 1.54%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 55) 37.40
Female (World Rank: 27) 43.70
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 55) 3,571,360
0 14 female (World Rank: 55) 3,366,380
15 24 male (World Rank: 51) 2,226,140
15 24 female (World Rank: 51) 2,114,850
25 54 male (World Rank: 29) 9,579,150
25 54 female (World Rank: 29) 9,921,390
55 64 male (World Rank: 24) 2,605,850
55 64 female (World Rank: 20) 3,469,250
65 x male (World Rank: 22) 2,409,050
65 x female (World Rank: 16) 4,770,460
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 153) 0.78%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 146) 72years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 124) 77years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 152) 67years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 41) 3.00
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 7) 9.00
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 69) 95.90%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 61) 24.10%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 101) 96.20%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 25) 152,200,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 26) 133,400,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 38) 3,591,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 52) 2,241,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 123) 62.10%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 79) 23.00%
Source renew (World Rank: 109) 2.70%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 61) 32,070bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 69) 1,336bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 77) 7,840bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 52) 395,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 70) 78,030bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 49) 248,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 73) 15,210bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 34) 177,700bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 32) 19,000,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 27) 41,100,000,000
Import (World Rank: 24) 0
Carbon footprint
291000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 34) 6% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 18) 4% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 79) 7% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 88) -2% of GDP
National symbol
tryzub
National colours
yellow
Adjective
Ukrainian
Noun
Ukrainian(s)
Background
Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014. Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the "referendum" as baseless and invalid and confiming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 50) 352,900,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 120) 2.30%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 143) 8,300USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 69) 13.80%
Source industry (World Rank: 100) 27.30%
Source service (World Rank: 131) 59.50%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 33) 18,040,000
In poverty (World Rank: 81) 24.10%
Products
Industries
  • - chemicals
  • - coal
  • - electric power
  • - ferrous
  • - food processing
  • - machinery
  • - nonferrous metals
  • - transport equipment
Agriculture
  • - beef
  • - grain
  • - milk
  • - sugar beets
  • - sunflower seeds
  • - vegetables
Exports
  • - chemicals
  • - ferrous
  • - foodstuffs
  • - fuel
  • - machinery
  • - nonferrous metals
  • - petroleum products
  • - transport equipment
Imports
  • - chemicals
  • - energy
  • - equipment
  • - machinery

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 21) 8,451,230
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 92) 19.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 59) 128.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 30) 23,202,100
Population (World Rank: 118) 52.50%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 20) 108.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 45) 79.00
Heliports (World Rank: 24) 9.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 12) 21,733
Road
Total length (World Rank: 31) 169,694
Paved length (World Rank: 17) 166,095
Unpaved length (World Rank: 107) 3,599
Water
Total length (World Rank: 48) 1,672