Romania
in Eastern Europe
Europe

Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Leu - RON
Spoken languages:
Romanian, Hungarian
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
RO
Internet top level domain:
.ro
Country phone prefix:
+40
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Romania

Romania with its capital Bucharest is located in Europe (Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea). It covers some 238,392 square kilometers (twice the size of Pennsylvania) with 21,530,000 citizens. Romanian and Hungarian are the languages commonly used by the people in Romania. Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia and Ukraine are bordering countries.

Romania is a country located north of the Balkan Peninsula on the western shores of the Black Sea. It is a country of great natural beauty and diversity and a rich cultural heritage. Romania enchants visitors with its scenic mountain landscapes and unspoilt rural areas, but also with its historic cities and its busy capital. While it has significant cultural similarities with other Balkan states, it is regarded as unique due to its strong Latin heritage. Things for which Romania is famous include: the Carpathian mountains, Constantin Brancusi, wine, medieval fortresses, Mircea Eliade, Dacia cars, Dracula, stuffed cabbage leaves, Nadia Comaneci, the Black Sea, Gheorghe Hagi, sunflower fields, painted monasteries and the Danube Delta.

Popular Destinations in Romania

Administrative regions of Romania

About the country

Website: Romania Tourism

The landscape is central Transylvanian Basin being separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps. The average density of population is about 90 per km². The climate in Romania can be described as temperatecold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog, sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Potential threats by nature are earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest geologic structure and climate promote landslides

To reach someone Romania dial +40 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ro". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Leu is RON.

Three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed.

Flag of Romania

The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 84) 238,391sq km
Land (World Rank: 81) 229,891sq km
Water (World Rank: 52) 8,500sq km
Forest (World Rank: 91) 19.70%
Comparative twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Coastline
225
Landborder
2844
Elevation
Highest point (World Rank: 100) 2,544m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 40) 60.70%
Arable (World Rank: 15) 39.10%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 96) 1.90%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 91) 19.70%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 20) 31,490sq km
Map reference
Europe
Environment
Issues
  • - air pollution in south from industrial effluents
  • - contamination of Danube delta wetlands
  • - soil erosion and degradation
  • - water pollution
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • - Antarctic Treaty
  • - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Environmental Modification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Ship Pollution
  • - Wetlands
Hazzards
  • - earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest
  • - geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Climate
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 58) 21,530,000
Deathrate (World Rank: 22) 1.20%
Birthrate (World Rank: 205) 0.89%
Growthrate (World Rank: 213) -0.33%
Migration rate (World Rank: 79) -0.02%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 211) 1.35%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 39) 39.70
Female (World Rank: 42) 42.60
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 81) 1,586,980
0 14 female (World Rank: 81) 1,502,860
15 24 male (World Rank: 74) 1,170,680
15 24 female (World Rank: 76) 1,110,730
25 54 male (World Rank: 48) 5,016,530
25 54 female (World Rank: 49) 4,893,790
55 64 male (World Rank: 38) 1,271,280
55 64 female (World Rank: 34) 1,443,410
65 x male (World Rank: 32) 1,428,600
65 x female (World Rank: 27) 2,105,110
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 141) 0.94%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 105) 75years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 92) 79years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 119) 72years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 54) 2.67
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 24) 6.10
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 126) 79.10%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 75) 22.50%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 39) 100.00%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 46) 62,160,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 50) 48,280,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 19) 11,220,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 42) 4,492,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 154) 46.70%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 126) 5.40%
Source renew (World Rank: 31) 18.80%
Crude oil
Production (World Rank: 46) 77,910bbl / day
Exports (World Rank: 71) 1,049bbl / day
Imports (World Rank: 38) 145,500bbl / day
Proved reserves (World Rank: 44) 600,000,000bbl
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 47) 228,100bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 57) 182,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 45) 80,400bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 90) 40,940bbl / day
Natural gas
Production (World Rank: 40) 11,170,000,000
Consumption (World Rank: 45) 17,330,000,000
Export (World Rank: 54) 1,078,000
Import (World Rank: 33) 0
Carbon footprint
76000000

Nation

Budget
Education (World Rank: 140) 3% of GDP
Military (World Rank: 82) 1% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 118) 6% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 94) -2% of GDP
National symbol
golden eagle
National colours
yellow
Adjective
Romanian
Noun
Romanian(s)
Background
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 42) 441,600,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 44) 4.80%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 81) 22,300USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 132) 4.40%
Source industry (World Rank: 50) 34.20%
Source service (World Rank: 99) 63.30%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 54) 8,979,000
In poverty (World Rank: 91) 22.40%
Products
Industries
  • - auto assembly
  • - chemicals
  • - construction materials
  • - electric machinery
  • - equipment
  • - food processing
  • - footwear
  • - light machinery
  • - metallurgy
  • - mining
  • - petroleum refining
  • - textiles
  • - timber
Agriculture
  • - barley
  • - corn
  • - eggs
  • - grapes
  • - potatoes
  • - sheep
  • - sugar beets
  • - sunflower seed
  • - wheat
Exports
  • - agricultural products
  • - chemicals
  • - equipment
  • - foodstuffs
  • - fuels
  • - machinery
  • - metal products
  • - metals
  • - minerals
  • - other manufactured goods
  • - raw materials
Imports
  • - agricultural products
  • - chemicals
  • - equipment
  • - foodstuffs
  • - fuels
  • - machinery
  • - metal products
  • - metals
  • - minerals
  • - other manufactured goods
  • - raw materials

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 35) 4,110,000
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 95) 19.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 126) 106.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 43) 12,852,700
Population (World Rank: 97) 59.50%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 65) 26.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 109) 19.00
Heliports (World Rank: 58) 2.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 23) 11,268
Road
Total length (World Rank: 58) 84,185
Paved length (World Rank: 46) 49,873
Unpaved length (World Rank: 44) 34,312
Water
Total length (World Rank: 47) 1,731