Discover Ethiopia in Africa

Travel warning information is updated daily: The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade's advisory service suggests to reconsider your need to travel to this country. Take this advice seriously - check with your local authorities whether your exact destination is safe.

Ethiopia with its capital Addis Ababa is located in Africa (Eastern Africa, west of Somalia). It covers some 1,127,128 square kilometres (slightly less than twice the size of Texas) with 78,254,000 citizens. Amharic, English, Oromo, Tigrinya, Somali, and Somali are the languages spoken by people in Ethiopia (consider regional differences). Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan, Somalia and Djibouti are bordering countries.

Ethiopia is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. It is the 2nd-most populous nation in Africa (after Nigeria), bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Sudan and South Sudan to the west. Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the second-oldest official Christian nation in the world after Armenia. The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. As a highland country, Ethiopia has a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator.

Pictures from the Ethiopian capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Addis Ababa is like. We have selected more pictures from Addis Ababa on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

The topography features high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley. The average density of population is about 69 per km². The climate in Ethiopia can be described as tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation. Potential natural disasters are geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or frequent droughts.

To reach someone in Ethiopia dial +251 prior to a number. There are 915,100 installed telephones. And there are 4,052,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".et". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 220V - 50Hz.

Description of the flag of Ethiopia

Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996.

National administrative regions of Ethiopia

Historical background information

Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia''s first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission(EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.

Demographic Information

Ethiopia has 55 senior citizens having at least the age of 100 years. Ladies make up for 40 of this count (which is 73%). 16,230,384 children are younger than 5 years (and make up for 18% of the total population). 43.3 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Ethiopian Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Ethiopia

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: Africa
Neighbours: Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti
Capital: Addis Ababa
Size 1,127,127 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 435,186 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Population 78,254,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Birr, Currency Code: ETB
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .et
Telephone Country Prefix +251
Mobile Phone Connections 4,052,000
Landline Phone Connections 915,100
Military Spendings 1.2% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 1,104,300 (sq km) 27

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 93,877,025 13
Population growth rate 2.90 (%) 11
Birth rate 38.07 (births/1,000 population) 14
Death rate 8.87 (deaths/1,000 population) 70
Net migration rate -0.23 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 120
Maternal mortality rate 350.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 31
Infant mortality rate 58.28 (deaths/1,000 live births) 29
Life expectancy at birth 60.00 (years) 193
Total fertility rate 5.31 (children born/woman) 14
Health expenditures 4.90 (% of GDP) 143
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 1.10 (%) 191
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 29.20 (%) 17
Education expenditures 4.70 (% of GDP) 89
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 24.9 (%) 38


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 105,000,000,000 73
GDP - real growth rate 7.00 (%) 28
GDP - per capita (PPP) 1,200 211
Labor force 37,900,000 17
Distribution of family income - Gini index 30 116
Investment (gross fixed) 22.70 (% of GDP) 66
Taxes and other revenues 14.5 (% of GDP) 192
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -2.70 (% of GDP) 102
Public debt 44.40 (% of GDP) 77
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 21.70 (%) 218
Commercial bank prime lending rate 16.00 (%) 34
Stock of narrow money 7,851,000,000 84
Stock of broad money 13,350,000,000 94
Stock of domestic credit 13,910,000,000 90
Industrial production growth rate 9.50 (%) 14
Current account balance -2,950,000,000 149
Exports 3,163,000,000 130
Imports 10,600,000,000 94
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 3,024,000,000 107
Debt - external 9,956,000,000 97


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 4,039,000,000 (kWh) 124
Electricity - consumption 3,648,000,000 (kWh) 126
Electricity - installed generating capacity 1180000 (kW) 120
Electricity - from fossil fuels 17.2 (% of total installed capacity) 192
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 82.1 (% of total installed capacity) 14
Electricity - from other renewable sources 0.6 (% of total installed capacity) 75
Crude oil - proved reserves 430000 (bbl) 101
Refined petroleum products - consumption 49,080 (bbl/day) 101
Refined petroleum products - imports 42,480 (bbl/day) 73
Natural gas - proved reserves 113,000,000,000 (cu m) 53
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 6,740,000 (Mt) 113


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 829,000 86
Telephones - mobile cellular 14,127,000 56
Internet hosts 179 204
Internet users 447,300 119


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 58 82
Railways 681 (km) 102
Roadways 36,469 (km) 93
Merchant marine 8 121


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 0.90 (% of GDP) 142

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.