Eritrea
in Eastern Africa
Africa

National active POI Bordering countries
Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Nakfa - ERN
Spoken languages:
Afar, Arabic, Tigrinya
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, L)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz
ISO 2-Letter code:
ER
Internet top level domain:
.er
Country phone prefix:
+291
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours
Current travel safety evaluation for Eritrea in Eastern Africa

Safety Score: 3,4 of 5.0 based on data from 9 authorites. Meaning please reconsider your need to travel to Eritrea.

Travel warnings are updated daily. Source: Travel Warning Eritrea. Last Update: 2019-08-19 07:23:27

Explore Eritrea

Eritrea with its capital Asmara is located in Africa (Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea). It covers some 117,601 square kilometers (slightly larger than Pennsylvania) with a population of 5,918,920. Afar, Arabic and Tigrinya are the languages spoken by people in Eritrea (consider regional differences). Djibouti, Ethiopia and Sudan are bordering countries.

Eritrea is in East Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan, with a long disputed border with Ethiopia.Hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 610mm (24 in) of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in the coastal desert. Bordering Ethiopia, there are north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to rolling plains. Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon declaring independence from Ethiopia in 1993.

Popular Destinations in Eritrea

Administrative regions of Eritrea

About the country

The topography is dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains. The average density of population is about 50 per km². The climate in Eritrea can be described as hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coastcooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September), semiarid in western hills and lowlands. Potential natural disasters are Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011, frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes and locust swarms.

To reach someone Eritrea dial +291 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".er". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, L). The sign for the locally used currency Nakfa is ERN.

Red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country.

Flag of Eritrea

After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A UN peacekeeping operation was established that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (initially in 2009 and renewed annually) imposing an arms embargo and a travel ban and assets freeze on certain individuals, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 102) 117,600sq km
Land (World Rank: 104) 101,000sq km
Water (World Rank: 34) 16,600sq km
Forest (World Rank: 13) 68.30%
Comparative slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Coastline
2234
Landborder
1840
Elevation
Lowest point (World Rank: 63) -75m
Highest point (World Rank: 65) 3,018m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 12) 75.10%
Arable (World Rank: 136) 6.80%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 13) 68.30%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 135) 210sq km
Map reference
Africa
Environment
Issues
  • - deforestation
  • - desertification
  • - overgrazing
  • - soil erosion
Agreement party
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
Hazzards
  • - Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011
  • - frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes
  • - locust swarms
Location
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Climate
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Terrain
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 112) 5,918,920
Deathrate (World Rank: 123) 0.72%
Birthrate (World Rank: 39) 2.96%
Growthrate (World Rank: 126) 0.85%
Migration rate (World Rank: 180) -1.39%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 35) 3.99%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 198) 19.20
Female (World Rank: 192) 20.10
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 90) 1,195,210
0 14 female (World Rank: 89) 1,182,600
15 24 male (World Rank: 100) 576,315
15 24 female (World Rank: 98) 582,143
25 54 male (World Rank: 122) 950,121
25 54 female (World Rank: 121) 981,163
55 64 male (World Rank: 138) 94,767
55 64 female (World Rank: 133) 124,528
65 x male (World Rank: 133) 97,530
65 x female (World Rank: 134) 134,539
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 41) 4.50%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 176) 65years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 175) 68years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 179) 63years
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 161) 0.70
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 199) 15.70%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 183) 5.00%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 191) 57.80%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 171) 383,800,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 177) 329,800,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 39) 98.60%
Source renew (World Rank: 128) 1.40%
Refined products
Consumption (World Rank: 180) 3,600bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 172) 3,598bbl / day
Natural gas
Consumption (World Rank: 115) 39
Carbon footprint
800000

Nation

Budget
Health (World Rank: 178) 3% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 195) -11% of GDP
National symbol
camel
National colours
red
Adjective
Eritrean
Noun
Eritrean(s)
Background
After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A UN peacekeeping operation was established that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (initially in 2009 and renewed annually) imposing an arms embargo and a travel ban and assets freeze on certain individuals, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.
Flag description
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 160) 9,167,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 73) 3.70%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 218) 1,400USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 78) 12.10%
Source industry (World Rank: 79) 29.50%
Source service (World Rank: 135) 58.50%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 111) 2,623,000
In poverty (World Rank: 21) 50.00%
Products
Industries
  • - beverages
  • - cement
  • - clothing
  • - food processing
  • - light manufacturing
  • - salt
  • - textiles
Agriculture
  • - corn
  • - cotton
  • - fish
  • - goats
  • - lentils
  • - livestock
  • - sisal
  • - sorghum
  • - tobacco
  • - vegetables
Exports
  • - food
  • - gold
  • - livestock
  • - other minerals
  • - small industry manufactures
  • - sorghum
  • - textiles
Imports
  • - food
  • - machinery
  • - manufactured goods
  • - petroleum products

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 150) 66,086
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 187) 1.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 216) 9.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 179) 69,095
Population (World Rank: 224) 1.20%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 157) 4.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 136) 9.00
Heliports (World Rank: 96) 1.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 122) 306
Road
Total length (World Rank: 158) 4,010
Paved length (World Rank: 147) 874
Unpaved length (World Rank: 113) 3,136