Somalia
in Eastern Africa
Africa

National active POI Bordering countries
Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Shilling - SOS
Spoken languages:
Somali, Arabic, Italian, English
Local electricity:
220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
SO
Internet top level domain:
.so
Country phone prefix:
+252
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours
Current travel safety evaluation for Somalia in Eastern Africa

Safety Score: 4,9 of 5.0 based on data from 9 authorites. Meaning it is not safe to travel Somalia.

Travel warnings are updated daily. Source: Travel Warning Somalia. Last Update: 2019-12-08 07:21:32

Explore Somalia

Somalia with its capital Mogadishu is located in Africa (Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean). It covers some 637,658 square kilometers (almost five times the size of Alabama) with a population of 11,031,400. Somali, Arabic, Italian and English are the languages spoken by people in Somalia (consider regional differences). Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya are bordering countries.

Somalia is currently a war zone, and remains extremely dangerous for independent travel or sightseeing due to armed conflict between Government forces and insurgents, kidnappings, warlording, and piracy.

Popular Destinations in Somalia

Administrative regions of Somalia

About the country

The terrain is mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north. The average density of population is about 17 per km². The climate in Somalia can be described as principally desertnortheast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south, southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons. Possible natural disasters include floods during rainy season, frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer and recurring droughts.

To reach someone Somalia dial +252 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".so". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 220 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C). The sign for the locally used currency Shilling is SOS.

Light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya).

Flag of Somalia

Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while UN-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 44) 637,657sq km
Land (World Rank: 42) 627,337sq km
Water (World Rank: 47) 10,320sq km
Forest (World Rank: 11) 68.50%
Comparative almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Coastline
3025
Landborder
2385
Elevation
Highest point (World Rank: 107) 2,416m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 25) 70.30%
Arable (World Rank: 187) 1.80%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 11) 68.50%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 76) 2,000sq km
Map reference
Africa
Environment
Issues
  • - deforestation
  • - desertification
  • - famine
  • - overgrazing
  • - soil erosion
  • - use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems
Agreement party
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Desertification
  • - Endangered Species
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
Hazzards
  • - floods during rainy season
  • - frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer
  • - recurring droughts
Location
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Climate
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 83) 11,031,400
Deathrate (World Rank: 14) 1.31%
Birthrate (World Rank: 9) 3.96%
Growthrate (World Rank: 46) 2.00%
Migration rate (World Rank: 165) -0.65%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 5) 5.80%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 207) 18.30
Female (World Rank: 215) 17.90
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 72) 2,376,530
0 14 female (World Rank: 72) 2,383,060
15 24 male (World Rank: 81) 1,059,610
15 24 female (World Rank: 80) 1,040,340
25 54 male (World Rank: 92) 1,795,360
25 54 female (World Rank: 95) 1,671,420
55 64 male (World Rank: 106) 230,027
55 64 female (World Rank: 114) 233,257
65 x male (World Rank: 135) 93,736
65 x female (World Rank: 129) 148,053
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 2) 9.48%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 215) 53years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 212) 55years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 218) 51years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 178) 0.03
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 188) 23.60%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 152) 8.30%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 206) 31.70%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 175) 344,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 180) 319,900,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 37) 98.80%
Source renew (World Rank: 129) 1.20%
Refined products
Consumption (World Rank: 172) 5,700bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 161) 5,679bbl / day
Natural gas
Consumption (World Rank: 131) 23
Carbon footprint
900000

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 152) 16,770,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 88) 3.20%
Source agriculture (World Rank: 3) 60.20%
Source industry (World Rank: 212) 7.40%
Source service (World Rank: 218) 32.50%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 90) 4,154,000
Products
Industries
  • - including sugar refining
  • - light industries
  • - textiles
  • - wireless communication
Agriculture
  • - bananas
  • - beans
  • - cattle
  • - coconuts
  • - corn
  • - fish
  • - goats
  • - mangoes
  • - rice
  • - sesame seeds
  • - sheep
  • - sorghum
  • - sugarcane
Exports
  • - bananas
  • - charcoal
  • - fish
  • - hides
  • - livestock
  • - scrap metal
Imports
  • - construction materials
  • - foodstuffs
  • - manufactures
  • - petroleum products
  • - qat

Nation

Budget
Surplus (World Rank: 41) -0% of GDP
National symbol
leopard
National colours
white
Adjective
Somali
Noun
Somali(s)
Background
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while UN-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.
Flag description
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 155) 48,000
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 210) 1.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 193) 62.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 167) 203,366
Population (World Rank: 223) 1.90%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 141) 6.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 57) 55.00
Road
Total length (World Rank: 106) 22,100
Paved length (World Rank: 121) 2,608
Unpaved length (World Rank: 62) 19,492