Bosnia and Herzegovina
in Southern Europe
Europe

National active POI Bordering countries
Location Summary
Currency and Currency Code:
Marka - BAM
Spoken languages:
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Local electricity:
230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F)
Mobile phone / cellular frequencies (MHz):
900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G
ISO 2-Letter code:
BA
Internet top level domain:
.ba
Country phone prefix:
+387
Local Time (capital):
Timezone:
UTC/GMT offset: hours

Explore Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina with its capital Sarajevo is located in Europe (Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia). It covers some 51,198 square kilometers (slightly smaller than West Virginia) with a population of 3,856,180. Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are the languages spoken by people in Bosnia and Herzegovina (consider regional differences). Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia are bordering countries.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a Balkan country that was formerly part of Yugoslavia. Mostly mountainous, it has access to a tiny portion of the Adriatic Sea coastline in the south. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Cycling can be beautiful in Bosnia. Other traffic is not so much used how to relate to bikes on their way. Hitching is not advised, and walking between towns can prove dangerous (including in areas which may not have been de-mined).

Popular Destinations in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Administrative regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina

About the country

The topography is mountains and valleys. The average density of population is about 75 per km². The climate in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be described as hot summers and cold wintersareas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters, mild, rainy winters along coast. Potential natural disasters are destructive earthquakes.

To reach someone Bosnia and Herzegovina dial +387 prior to a number. The local cellular networks are operated on 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 3G, 4G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ba". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery chaarger), keep in min the local 230 V - 50 Hz (plugs: C, F). The sign for the locally used currency Marka is BAM.

A wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia.

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.

Geography

Area
Total (World Rank: 129) 51,197sq km
Land (World Rank: 127) 51,187sq km
Water (World Rank: 153) 10sq km
Forest (World Rank: 86) 20.50%
Comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Coastline
20
Landborder
1543
Elevation
Highest point (World Rank: 108) 2,386m
Agricultural land
Total (World Rank: 99) 42.20%
Arable (World Rank: 57) 19.70%
Permanent crops (World Rank: 94) 2.00%
Permanent pastures (World Rank: 86) 20.50%
Irrigated land (World Rank: 158) 30sq km
Map reference
Europe
Environment
Issues
  • - air pollution
  • - deforestation and illegal logging
  • - inadequate wastewater treatment and flood management facilities
  • - land mines left over from the 1992-95 civil strife are a hazard in some areas
  • - sites for disposing of urban waste are limited
Agreement party
  • - Air Pollution
  • - Biodiversity
  • - Climate Change
  • - Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
  • - Desertification
  • - Hazardous Wastes
  • - Law of the Sea
  • - Marine Life Conservation
  • - Ozone Layer Protection
  • - Wetlands
Hazzards destructive earthquakes
Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Climate
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain
mountains and valleys

People

Population
Total (World Rank: 128) 3,856,180
Deathrate (World Rank: 39) 1.00%
Birthrate (World Rank: 208) 0.88%
Growthrate (World Rank: 201) -0.16%
Migration rate (World Rank: 85) -0.04%
Fertility rate (World Rank: 214) 1.30%
Median age
Male (World Rank: 30) 40.50
Female (World Rank: 30) 43.50
Age structure
0 14 male (World Rank: 147) 264,718
0 14 female (World Rank: 148) 247,587
15 24 male (World Rank: 139) 230,495
15 24 female (World Rank: 138) 216,107
25 54 male (World Rank: 127) 889,686
25 54 female (World Rank: 125) 879,514
55 64 male (World Rank: 96) 275,550
55 64 female (World Rank: 97) 296,236
65 x male (World Rank: 99) 218,823
65 x female (World Rank: 94) 337,465
Health
Infant mortality rate (World Rank: 169) 0.55%
Life expectancy total (World Rank: 80) 77years
Life expectancy female (World Rank: 75) 80years
Life expectancy male (World Rank: 83) 74years
Physicians per 1000 (World Rank: 78) 1.89
Hospital bed per 1000 (World Rank: 65) 3.50
Sanitation access total (World Rank: 75) 94.80%
Obesity adult (World Rank: 118) 17.90%
Drinking water access (World Rank: 44) 99.90%

Energy

Electricity
Production (World Rank: 86) 14,970,000,000kWh
Consumption (World Rank: 88) 11,440,000,000kWh
Export (World Rank: 31) 6,007,000,000kWh
Import (World Rank: 46) 3,872,000,000kWh
Source fossil (World Rank: 167) 41.60%
Source nuclear (World Rank: 41) 48.30%
Source renew (World Rank: 152) 0.30%
Crude oil
Imports (World Rank: 65) 18,940bbl / day
Refined products
Production (World Rank: 89) 20,700bbl / day
Consumption (World Rank: 118) 31,000bbl / day
Export (World Rank: 91) 5,910bbl / day
Import (World Rank: 127) 15,700bbl / day
Natural gas
Consumption (World Rank: 100) 881,000,000
Import (World Rank: 57) 0
Carbon footprint
17000000

Nation

Budget
Military (World Rank: 115) 1% of GDP
Health (World Rank: 30) 10% of GDP
Surplus (World Rank: 58) -1% of GDP
National symbol
golden lily
National colours
yellow
Adjective
Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Noun
Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
Background
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.
Flag description
a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia

Economy

Gdp
Purchasing power parity (World Rank: 112) 42,040,000,000USD
Real growth rate (World Rank: 136) 2.00%
Per capita purchasing power parity (World Rank: 133) 10,900USD
Source agriculture (World Rank: 105) 7.80%
Source industry (World Rank: 104) 26.80%
Source service (World Rank: 86) 65.40%
Labourforce
Total (World Rank: 132) 1,401,000
In poverty (World Rank: 118) 17.20%
Products
Industries
  • - aluminum
  • - ammunition
  • - bauxite
  • - coal
  • - domestic appliances
  • - iron ore
  • - lead
  • - manganese
  • - motor vehicle assembly
  • - oil refining
  • - steel
  • - textiles
  • - tobacco products
  • - wooden furniture
  • - zinc
Agriculture
  • - corn
  • - fruits
  • - livestock
  • - vegetables
  • - wheat
Exports
  • - clothing
  • - metals
  • - wood products
Imports
  • - chemicals
  • - equipment
  • - foodstuffs
  • - fuels
  • - machinery

Communication

Phone
Landline total (World Rank: 87) 744,991
Landline per 100 (World Rank: 96) 19.00
Mobile per 100 (World Rank: 152) 88.00
Assessment 0
Internet
Users (World Rank: 99) 2,677,500
Population (World Rank: 76) 69.30%

Transport

Air
Airports paved (World Rank: 134) 7.00
Airports unpaved (World Rank: 115) 17.00
Heliports (World Rank: 32) 6.00
Rail
Total length (World Rank: 91) 965
Road
Total length (World Rank: 103) 22,926
Paved length (World Rank: 58) 19,426
Unpaved length (World Rank: 108) 3,500