Facts and Data

Official Unesco Page

Basis Data:
Unesco World heritage since: 2011
Size of heritage: 716 ha
- Buffer zone: 9,740 ha

Longitude: 53,167°
Latitude: 30,167°


The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.

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The Persian Garden in Iran

The Persian Garden, located in Iran, is a UNESCO World Heritage site that showcases the rich history and cultural significance of Persian garden design. With its unique features and historical background, this garden has become a symbol of beauty and tranquility.


The Persian Garden dates back to the 6th century BC, during the Achaemenid Empire. It was during this time that the concept of a Persian garden was first introduced. These gardens were designed to reflect the harmony between humans and nature, with an emphasis on symmetry, water, and shade.

Over the centuries, Persian garden design evolved and reached its peak during the Safavid Dynasty in the 16th century. The Safavid rulers were passionate about creating beautiful gardens, and they commissioned the construction of numerous gardens throughout Iran. These gardens were not only places of relaxation and leisure but also served as symbols of power and wealth.

The Persian Garden became a source of inspiration for garden design in other parts of the world, including India, Spain, and even as far as the Mughal gardens in India. Its influence can be seen in the layout and design of many famous gardens, such as the Taj Mahal in India.


The Persian Garden is characterized by its unique features that set it apart from other garden designs. One of the most prominent features is the use of water. Water plays a central role in Persian garden design, with fountains, pools, and canals strategically placed throughout the garden. These water features not only provide a sense of tranquility but also serve as a means of irrigation.

Another key feature of the Persian Garden is its emphasis on symmetry and geometric patterns. The garden is divided into four quadrants, representing the four elements of nature: water, earth, fire, and air. Each quadrant is meticulously designed with pathways, trees, and flowers, creating a harmonious and balanced environment.

Current State

Today, the Persian Garden continues to be an important cultural and historical site in Iran. Many of the original gardens have been preserved and restored, allowing visitors to experience the beauty and serenity of these ancient gardens.

One of the most well-known Persian gardens is the Eram Garden in Shiraz. This garden, dating back to the 13th century, is renowned for its stunning architecture, lush vegetation, and beautiful flowers. It attracts thousands of visitors each year who come to admire its beauty and learn about its historical significance.

Efforts are being made to protect and preserve the Persian Garden, as it is an integral part of Iran's cultural heritage. The gardens are carefully maintained, and measures are taken to ensure their longevity. UNESCO's recognition of the Persian Garden as a World Heritage site has also helped raise awareness about its importance and the need for its preservation.

In conclusion, the Persian Garden in Iran is a testament to the rich history and cultural significance of Persian garden design. With its unique features and historical background, it continues to captivate visitors from around the world, offering a glimpse into the harmonious relationship between humans and nature.