Discover Peru in South America

Peru with its capital Lima is located in South America (Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean). It covers some 1,285,221 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Alaska) with 29,041,000 citizens. Spanish, Quechua and Aymara are the official languages spoken in Peru (consider regional differences). Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia are bordering countries.

Peru is a country in South America, situated on the western side of that continent, facing the South Pacific Ocean and straddling part of the Andes mountain range that runs the length of South America. The main attractions are their archaeological patrimony of pre-Columbian cultures and the center of Inca's Empire, their gastronomy, their colonial architecture (has imposing colonial constructions) and their natural resources (a paradise for the ecological tourism). Peruvians do not hesitate to greet you with ¡Hola, gringo!.

Pictures from the Peruvian capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Lima is like. We have selected more pictures from Lima on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

National Tourism Office

Website: Peru Tourism

Edificio MITINCI piso 13
Calle Uno oeste No. 50
Urb. Corpac
Lima 27

Phone: +51 1 224 3279
Phone: +51 1 224 3323

The landscape features western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva). The average density of population is about 23 per km². The climate in Peru can be described as varying from tropical in east to dry desert in west with temperate to frigid in Andes. Potential threats by nature are earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity.

To reach someone in Peru dial +51 prior to a number. There are 2,965,000 installed telephones. And there are 24,700,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 1900 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".pe". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 220V - 60Hz.

Description of the flag of Peru

Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace.

National administrative regions of Peru

Historical background information

Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president''s increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru''s first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.

Demographic Information

Peru has 202 citizens over the age of 100 years. Female citizens make up for 142 of this count (which is 70%). 2,790,168 kids are between the age of of 0-5 years (and make up for 9% of the total population). 19 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Peruvian Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Peru

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: South America
Neighbours: Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia
Capital: Lima
Size 1,285,220 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 496,226 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Alaska
Population 29,041,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Sol, Currency Code: PEN
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .pe
Telephone Country Prefix +51
Mobile Phone Connections 24,700,000
Landline Phone Connections 2,965,000
Military Spendings 1.5% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 1,285,216 (sq km) 20

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 29,849,303 42
Population growth rate 1.00 (%) 114
Birth rate 18.85 (births/1,000 population) 97
Death rate 5.97 (deaths/1,000 population) 163
Net migration rate -2.86 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 173
Maternal mortality rate 67.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 91
Infant mortality rate 20.85 (deaths/1,000 live births) 89
Life expectancy at birth 72.98 (years) 128
Total fertility rate 2.25 (children born/woman) 98
Health expenditures 5.10 (% of GDP) 137
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.40 (%) 76
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 75,000 48
HIV/AIDS - deaths 5,000 38
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 15.70 (%) 117
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 4.50 (%) 93
Education expenditures 2.60 (% of GDP) 155
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 16.2 (%) 81


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 332,000,000,000 40
GDP - real growth rate 6.30 (%) 42
GDP - per capita (PPP) 10,900 111
Labor force 16,200,000 39
Unemployment rate 7.70 (%) 87
Distribution of family income - Gini index 46 34
Investment (gross fixed) 25.40 (% of GDP) 47
Taxes and other revenues 29.2 (% of GDP) 97
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 0.90 (% of GDP) 30
Public debt 18.30 (% of GDP) 132
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.60 (%) 100
Central bank discount rate 3.80 (%) 96
Commercial bank prime lending rate 5.40 (%) 152
Stock of narrow money 27,640,000,000 60
Stock of broad money 73,970,000,000 60
Stock of domestic credit 37,630,000,000 67
Market value of publicly traded shares 160,900,000,000 36
Industrial production growth rate 5.00 (%) 58
Current account balance -4,856,000,000 166
Exports 47,380,000,000 61
Imports 41,150,000,000 60
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 61,300,000,000 33
Debt - external 52,590,000,000 60
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 59,490,000,000 50
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 3,597,000,000 67


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 38,700,000,000 (kWh) 60
Electricity - consumption 34,250,000,000 (kWh) 59
Electricity - imports 6,000,000 (kWh) 106
Electricity - installed generating capacity 7982000 (kW) 64
Electricity - from fossil fuels 59.0 (% of total installed capacity) 139
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 41.0 (% of total installed capacity) 55
Crude oil - production 152,600 (bbl/day) 45
Crude oil - exports 18,880 (bbl/day) 54
Crude oil - imports 99,590 (bbl/day) 49
Crude oil - proved reserves 586100000 (bbl) 49
Refined petroleum products - production 173,700 (bbl/day) 59
Refined petroleum products - consumption 172,600 (bbl/day) 62
Refined petroleum products - exports 60,720 (bbl/day) 55
Refined petroleum products - imports 38,390 (bbl/day) 78
Natural gas - production 31,120,000,000 (cu m) 29
Natural gas - consumption 5,410,000,000 (cu m) 57
Natural gas - exports 3,590,000,000 (cu m) 33
Natural gas - proved reserves 352,800,000,000 (cu m) 38
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 41,880,000 (Mt) 67


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 3,688,000 43
Telephones - mobile cellular 32,461,000 33
Internet hosts 234,102 70
Internet users 9,158,000 31


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 191 32
Railways 1,907 (km) 74
Roadways 140,672 (km) 34
Waterways 8,808 (km) 14
Merchant marine 22 92


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 1.00 (% of GDP) 129

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.