Discover Turkmenistan in Asia

Turkmenistan with its capital Ashkhabad is located in Asia (Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea). It covers some 488,101 square kilometres (slightly larger than California) with 5,179,000 citizens. Turkmen, Russian and Uzbek are the languages spoken by people in Turkmenistan (consider regional differences). Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are bordering countries.

Turkmenistanis a country in Central Asia with a population of about 5 million, and an area around half a million km2, or almost the size of Spain. Turkmenistan is one of just two Stalinist countries in existence (the other being North Korea) and the government is in firm control of nearly everything, although, surprisingly, tourism is welcomed as long as you don't discuss politics or omnipresent police/military.

Pictures from the Turkmenistani capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Ashkhabad is like. We have selected more pictures from Ashkhabad on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

The terrain offers flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south with low mountains along border with Iran and borders Caspian Sea in west. The average density of population is about 11 per km². The climate in Turkmenistan can be described as subtropical desert. Possible natural disasters include NA.

To reach someone in Turkmenistan dial +993 prior to a number. There are 478,000 installed telephones. And there are 1,500,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900, 1800 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".tm". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 220V - 50Hz.

Description of the flag of Turkmenistan

Green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life
note: the flag of Turkmenistan is the most intricate of all national flags.

National administrative regions of Turkmenistan

Historical background information

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim crusaders, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. Turkmenistan is moving to expand its extraction and delivery projects. The Government of Turkmenistan is actively working to diversify its gas export routes beyond the still important Russian pipeline network. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy cabinet chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president; he was chosen as president again in February 2012, in an election that the OSCE said lacked the freedoms necessary to create a competitive environment.

Demographic Information

Turkmenistan has 25 persons having reached the age of 100 years. Ladies make up for 21 of this count (which is 84%). 452,916 young citizens below the age of five (and make up for 9% of the total population). 19.6 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Turkmenistani Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Turkmenistan

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: Asia
Neighbours: Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan
Capital: Ashkhabad
Size 488,100 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 188,456 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly larger than California
Population 5,179,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Manat, Currency Code: TMM
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .tm
Telephone Country Prefix +993
Mobile Phone Connections 1,500,000
Landline Phone Connections 478,000
Military Spendings 3.4% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 488,100 (sq km) 53

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 5,113,040 118
Population growth rate 1.15 (%) 103
Birth rate 19.53 (births/1,000 population) 90
Death rate 6.18 (deaths/1,000 population) 158
Net migration rate -1.88 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 160
Maternal mortality rate 67.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 89
Infant mortality rate 39.48 (deaths/1,000 live births) 60
Life expectancy at birth 69.16 (years) 156
Total fertility rate 2.12 (children born/woman) 108
Health expenditures 2.50 (% of GDP) 186
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 110
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 200 156
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 118
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 13.20 (%) 125


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 49,750,000,000 97
GDP - real growth rate 11.00 (%) 6
GDP - per capita (PPP) 8,900 126
Labor force 2,300,000 117
Unemployment rate 60.00 (%) 198
Distribution of family income - Gini index 41 56
Investment (gross fixed) 9.30 (% of GDP) 150
Taxes and other revenues 78.4 (% of GDP) 2
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -1.50 (% of GDP) 74
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10.50 (%) 202
Stock of narrow money 828,800,000 152
Stock of broad money 1,652,000,000 155
Stock of domestic credit 3,895,000,000 124
Industrial production growth rate 7.30 (%) 35
Current account balance 1,496,000,000 39
Exports 16,160,000,000 80
Imports 10,430,000,000 96
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 20,680,000,000 58
Debt - external 429,100,000 175


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 15,020,000,000 (kWh) 82
Electricity - consumption 11,220,000,000 (kWh) 86
Electricity - exports 1,568,000,000 (kWh) 46
Electricity - installed generating capacity 2852000 (kW) 90
Electricity - from fossil fuels 100.0 (% of total installed capacity) 41
Crude oil - production 222,200 (bbl/day) 38
Crude oil - exports 67,000 (bbl/day) 42
Crude oil - proved reserves 600000000 (bbl) 46
Refined petroleum products - production 160,300 (bbl/day) 64
Refined petroleum products - consumption 145,000 (bbl/day) 69
Refined petroleum products - exports 74,430 (bbl/day) 49
Refined petroleum products - imports 2,542 (bbl/day) 175
Natural gas - production 59,500,000,000 (cu m) 17
Natural gas - consumption 25,000,000,000 (cu m) 33
Natural gas - exports 34,500,000,000 (cu m) 12
Natural gas - proved reserves 24,300,000,000,000 (cu m) 5
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 62,050,000 (Mt) 55


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 547,000 94
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,511,000 120
Internet hosts 714 176
Internet users 80,400 166


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 26 126
Railways 2,980 (km) 56
Roadways 58,592 (km) 73
Waterways 1,300 (km) 54
Merchant marine 11 110


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 1.60 (% of GDP) 93

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.