Explore Sudan in Africa

Sudan
Country Guide

Map of the area of  in

Travel warning information is updated daily: The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade's advisory service has marked this country as DO NOT TRAVEL. This means that travelling this country can result in potentially life-threatening situations! If you really have to go: Check with your local authorities whether your exact destination is safe.

Sudan with its capital Khartoum is located in Africa (Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea). It covers some 2,505,811 square kilometres (slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US) with 40,218,000 citizens. Arabic and English are the the official languages used in Sudan. Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Egypt are bordering countries.

Travel in Sudan outside Khartoum, Omdurman and the Northern State is considered dangerous. Two borderline civil wars continue to see violence, in Southern Sudan and particularly in Darfur, while extremist groups target foreign visitors for attacks and kidnapping, particularly in the Upper Nile regions and near the Ethiopian border.

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Pictures from the Sudanese capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Khartoum is like. We have selected more pictures from Khartoum on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate and basic hints for travelling

The topography features generally flat, featureless plain with mountains in far south, northeast, and west and desert dominates the north. The average density of population is about 16 per km². The climate in Sudan can be described as tropical in south with arid desert in north, rainy season varying by region (April to November). Potential natural disasters are dust storms and periodic persistent droughts.

To reach someone in Sudan dial +249 prior to a number. There are 370,400 installed telephones. And there are 15,340,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900, 1800 MHz and 3G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".sd". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 230V - 50Hz.

Learn more on our Sudanese Facts page.

Description of the flag of Sudan

Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity.

National administrative regions of Sudan

Historical background information

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

Learn more on our Sudanese Facts page.

Based on the content from wikitravel.org. The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by geonames.org, CIA world facts book Edition 2010 and 2013, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia and others.