Discover Russia in Europe

Russia with its capital Moscow is located in Europe (Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean). It covers some 17,100,001 square kilometres (approximately 1.8 times the size of the US) with 140,702,000 citizens. Russian is the language commonly spoken by the majority in Russia. Georgia, China, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Mongolia, Norway, Azerbaijan and North Korea are bordering countries.

Russiaofficially known as the Russian Federation — is the world's largest country, spanning Eastern Europe, and northern Asia, sharing land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine to the west , Georgia (including the disputed regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Azerbaijan to the southwest, and Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, North Korea to the east and much of the south. Russia is immense, and extraordinarily long on attractions for visitors, although many lie in the hard-to-reach stretches of the planet's most remote lands. The best known sights are in and around the nation's principal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Russia's history is the number one reason why tourists come to this country, following the draw of its fascinating, sometimes surreal, oftentimes brutal, and always consequential national saga.

Pictures from the Russian capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Moscow is like. We have selected more pictures from Moscow on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

The terrain offers broad plain with low hills west of Urals with vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia and uplands and mountains along southern border regions. The average density of population is about 8 per km². The climate in Russia can be described as ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia with subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north, winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia, summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast. Possible natural disasters include permafrost over much of Siberia being a major impediment to development or volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands, volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula or spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia.

To reach someone in Russia dial +7 prior to a number. There are 44,802,000 installed telephones. And there are 230,500,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900, 1800 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ru". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 220V - 50Hz.

Description of the flag of Russia

Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors.

National administrative regions of Russia

Historical background information

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Demographic Information

Russia has 7,168 persons having reached the age of 100 years. Girls make up for 6,319 of this count (which is 88%). 7,622,294 young citizens below the age of five (and make up for 5% of the total population). 11.1 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Russian Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Russia

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Georgia, China, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Mongolia, Norway, Azerbaijan, North Korea
Capital: Moscow
Size 17,100,000 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 6,602,347 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Population 140,702,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Ruble, Currency Code: RUB
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .ru
Telephone Country Prefix +7
Mobile Phone Connections 230,500,000
Landline Phone Connections 44,802,000
Military Spendings 3.9% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 17,098,242 (sq km) 1

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 142,500,482 9
Population growth rate -0.02 (%) 198
Birth rate 12.11 (births/1,000 population) 164
Death rate 13.97 (deaths/1,000 population) 10
Net migration rate 1.69 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 46
Maternal mortality rate 34.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 120
Infant mortality rate 7.19 (deaths/1,000 live births) 160
Life expectancy at birth 69.85 (years) 152
Total fertility rate 1.61 (children born/woman) 178
Health expenditures 5.10 (% of GDP) 136
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.00 (%) 48
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 980,000 10
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 26.50 (%) 46
Education expenditures 4.10 (% of GDP) 110
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 15.5 (%) 83


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 2,555,000,000,000 7
GDP - real growth rate 3.40 (%) 99
GDP - per capita (PPP) 18,000 77
Labor force 75,600,000 8
Unemployment rate 5.70 (%) 54
Distribution of family income - Gini index 42 52
Investment (gross fixed) 19.70 (% of GDP) 101
Taxes and other revenues 20.9 (% of GDP) 158
Public debt 12.20 (% of GDP) 139
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.10 (%) 142
Central bank discount rate 8.00 (%) 32
Commercial bank prime lending rate 8.45 (%) 110
Stock of narrow money 452,800,000,000 12
Stock of broad money 1,061,000,000,000 19
Stock of domestic credit 922,600,000,000 17
Market value of publicly traded shares 796,400,000,000 17
Industrial production growth rate 2.60 (%) 102
Current account balance 81,300,000,000 5
Exports 530,700,000,000 9
Imports 335,400,000,000 16
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 537,600,000,000 5
Debt - external 631,800,000,000 22
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 504,200,000,000 14
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 412,500,000,000 15


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 1,064,000,000,000 (kWh) 5
Electricity - consumption 1,038,000,000,000 (kWh) 5
Electricity - exports 19,140,000,000 (kWh) 9
Electricity - imports 2,661,000,000 (kWh) 48
Electricity - installed generating capacity 223100000 (kW) 5
Electricity - from fossil fuels 67.7 (% of total installed capacity) 112
Electricity - from nuclear fuels 17.2 (% of total installed capacity) 13
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 15.1 (% of total installed capacity) 104
Crude oil - production 10,370,000 (bbl/day) 2
Crude oil - exports 4,690,000 (bbl/day) 3
Crude oil - imports 16,380 (bbl/day) 72
Crude oil - proved reserves 60000000000 (bbl) 9
Refined petroleum products - production 4,802,000 (bbl/day) 5
Refined petroleum products - consumption 3,341,000 (bbl/day) 6
Refined petroleum products - exports 2,699,000 (bbl/day) 2
Refined petroleum products - imports 24,300 (bbl/day) 97
Natural gas - production 653,000,000,000 (cu m) 2
Natural gas - consumption 460,000,000,000 (cu m) 3
Natural gas - exports 200,100,000,000 (cu m) 2
Natural gas - imports 32,500,000,000 (cu m) 14
Natural gas - proved reserves 47,570,000,000,000 (cu m) 2
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 1,634,000,000 (Mt) 5


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 44,152,000 5
Telephones - mobile cellular 236,700,000 6
Internet hosts 14,865,000 10
Internet users 40,853,000 10


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 1,218 5
Railways 87,157 (km) 2
Roadways 982,000 (km) 7
Waterways 102,000 (km) 2
Merchant marine 1,143 11


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 3.90 (% of GDP) 25

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.