Discover Nicaragua in North America

Nicaragua with its capital Managua is located in North America (Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean). It covers some 129,495 square kilometres (slightly smaller than New York state) with 5,780,000 citizens. Spanish and English are the official languages used in Nicaragua. As an interesting fact, it is sharing borders with Costa Rica and Honduras.

Nicaragua s a country in Central America. It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea, in the east, and the North Pacific Ocean, in the west, and has Costa Rica to the southeast and Honduras to the northwest. Tourism in Nicaragua is growing at 15% to 20% annually. Tourists are coming for the beauty and richness this country has to offer. From eco-tourism, adventure, beach, colonial cities, nightlife, and a low cost of living, Nicaragua has experienced a booming number of tourists from around the world. The places where tourists are hanging out and having a good time are in the colonial cities of Granada and Leon, the Pacific Coast, hiking on the volcanoes, and in the Caribbean coast in the Corn Islands.

Pictures from the Nicaraguan capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Managua is like. We have selected more pictures from Managua on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

National Tourism Office

Website: Nicaragua Tourism

Apartado Postal A-122

Phone: +505 2223333

The topography features extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains with narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes. The average density of population is about 45 per km². The climate in Nicaragua can be described as tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands. Potential natural disasters are destructive earthquakes or volcanoes, landslides or extremely susceptible to hurricanes.

To reach someone in Nicaragua dial +505 prior to a number. There are 255,000 installed telephones. And there are 3,204,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 1900 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".ni". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 120V - 60Hz.

Description of the flag of Nicaragua

Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water
note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band.

National administrative regions of Nicaragua

Historical background information

The Pacific coast of Nicaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama in the early 16th century. Independence from Spain was declared in 1821 and the country became an independent republic in 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast in the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region in subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. After losing free and fair elections in 1990, 1996, and 2001, former Sandinista President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra was elected president in 2006 and reelected in 2011. The 2008 municipal elections, 2010 regional elections, November 2011 presidential elections, and 2012 municipal elections were marred by widespread irregularities. Nicaragua's infrastructure and economy - hard hit by the earlier civil war and by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 - are slowly being rebuilt, but democratic institutions have been weakened under the ORTEGA administration.

Demographic Information

Nicaragua has 13 senior citizens having at least the age of 100 years. Female citizens make up for 10 of this count (which is 77%). 663,783 children are younger than 5 years (and make up for 11% of the total population). 22.8 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Nicaraguan Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Nicaragua

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: North America
Neighbours: Costa Rica, Honduras
Capital: Managua
Size 129,494 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 49,998 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than New York state
Population 5,780,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Cordoba, Currency Code: NIO
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .ni
Telephone Country Prefix +505
Mobile Phone Connections 3,204,000
Landline Phone Connections 255,000
Military Spendings 0.6% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 130,370 (sq km) 98

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 5,788,531 109
Population growth rate 1.05 (%) 110
Birth rate 18.77 (births/1,000 population) 98
Death rate 5.06 (deaths/1,000 population) 182
Net migration rate -3.26 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 177
Maternal mortality rate 95.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 76
Infant mortality rate 21.09 (deaths/1,000 live births) 87
Life expectancy at birth 72.45 (years) 131
Total fertility rate 2.03 (children born/woman) 125
Health expenditures 9.10 (% of GDP) 42
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.20 (%) 105
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 6,900 113
HIV/AIDS - deaths 500 84
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 22.20 (%) 81
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 5.70 (%) 83
Education expenditures 4.70 (% of GDP) 85
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 8.6 (%) 115


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 27,100,000,000 117
GDP - real growth rate 5.20 (%) 58
GDP - per capita (PPP) 4,500 166
Labor force 2,961,000 103
Unemployment rate 7.40 (%) 82
Distribution of family income - Gini index 41 57
Investment (gross fixed) 34.10 (% of GDP) 14
Taxes and other revenues 24.9 (% of GDP) 124
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 0.60 (% of GDP) 33
Public debt 52.70 (% of GDP) 56
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.60 (%) 173
Commercial bank prime lending rate 10.54 (%) 83
Stock of narrow money 1,287,000,000 140
Stock of broad money 3,136,000,000 142
Stock of domestic credit 4,138,000,000 120
Industrial production growth rate 1.50 (%) 125
Current account balance -1,476,000,000 126
Exports 4,160,000,000 122
Imports 6,519,000,000 116
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 1,900,000,000 123
Debt - external 5,228,000,000 114


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 3,824,000,000 (kWh) 125
Electricity - consumption 2,941,000,000 (kWh) 134
Electricity - exports 40,560 (kWh) 89
Electricity - imports 9,930 (kWh) 109
Electricity - installed generating capacity 1108000 (kW) 123
Electricity - from fossil fuels 66.0 (% of total installed capacity) 122
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 9.5 (% of total installed capacity) 117
Electricity - from other renewable sources 24.5 (% of total installed capacity) 3
Crude oil - imports 16,020 (bbl/day) 73
Refined petroleum products - production 14,680 (bbl/day) 103
Refined petroleum products - consumption 30,690 (bbl/day) 115
Refined petroleum products - exports 1,000 (bbl/day) 111
Refined petroleum products - imports 15,830 (bbl/day) 114
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 4,825,000 (Mt) 125


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 287,600 118
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,822,000 107
Internet hosts 296,068 63
Internet users 199,800 141


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 143 40
Roadways 19,137 (km) 111
Waterways 2,220 (km) 40


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 0.90 (% of GDP) 138

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.