Discover Mongolia in Asia

Mongolia with its capital Ulan Bator is located in Asia (Northern Asia, between China and Russia). It covers some 1,565,001 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Alaska) with 2,996,000 citizens. Mongolian and Russian are the languages spoken by people in Mongolia. As an interesting fact, it is sharing borders with China and Russia.

Mongolia is a landlocked country located between China and Russia. It is a vast emptiness that links land and sky, and is one of the last few places on the planet where nomadic life is still a living tradition. Mongolia is home to the three manly sports: wrestling, horse racing, and archery, and these are same three sporting events that take place every year at the Naadam festival. Local Bonda Lake Camp in Khatgal village near Lake Khovsgol offers various nature and cultural featuring: fishing, hiking, winter tours, nomad visits, horse back riding, visiting reindeer herders and Darhad valley.

Pictures from the Mongolian capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Ulan Bator is like. We have selected more pictures from Ulan Bator on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

National Tourism Office

State Administrative Building 14
Sambuu street-11
Ulaanbaatar-38 210628

Phone: +976 11 311102
Phone: +976 11 318492

The topography features vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest with Gobi Desert in south-central. The average density of population is about 2 per km². The climate in Mongolia can be described as desert with continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges). Potential natural disasters are dust storms or grassland and forest fires, drought, ", zud," or which being harsh winter conditions.

To reach someone in Mongolia dial +976 prior to a number. There are 188,900 installed telephones. And there are 2,249,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900 Mhz. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".mn". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 220V - 50Hz.

Description of the flag of Mongolia

Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity.

National administrative regions of Mongolia

Historical background information

The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols'' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People''s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People''s Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name. In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.

Demographic Information

Mongolia has 18 senior citizens having at least the age of 100 years. Ladies make up for 16 of this count (which is 89%). 298,410 children are younger than 5 years (and make up for 10% of the total population). 21 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Mongolian Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Mongolia

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: Asia
Neighbours: China, Russia
Capital: Ulan Bator
Size 1,565,000 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 604,250 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Alaska
Population 2,996,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Tugrik, Currency Code: MNT
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .mn
Telephone Country Prefix +976
Mobile Phone Connections 2,249,000
Landline Phone Connections 188,900
Military Spendings 1.4% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 1,564,116 (sq km) 19

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 3,226,516 135
Population growth rate 1.44 (%) 84
Birth rate 20.34 (births/1,000 population) 84
Death rate 5.98 (deaths/1,000 population) 162
Maternal mortality rate 63.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 98
Infant mortality rate 34.78 (deaths/1,000 live births) 65
Life expectancy at birth 68.95 (years) 157
Total fertility rate 2.18 (children born/woman) 105
Health expenditures 5.40 (% of GDP) 124
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 144
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 500 155
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 141
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 14.40 (%) 122
Children under the age of 5 years underweight 5.30 (%) 86
Education expenditures 5.50 (% of GDP) 55
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 20.0 (%) 57


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 15,440,000,000 141
GDP - real growth rate 12.30 (%) 3
GDP - per capita (PPP) 5,500 154
Labor force 1,037,000 142
Unemployment rate 9.00 (%) 102
Distribution of family income - Gini index 37 82
Taxes and other revenues 43.0 (% of GDP) 34
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -8.30 (% of GDP) 199
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 14.00 (%) 210
Central bank discount rate 12.25 (%) 15
Commercial bank prime lending rate 15.50 (%) 38
Stock of narrow money 1,314,000,000 139
Stock of broad money 5,456,000,000 127
Stock of domestic credit 5,007,000,000 117
Market value of publicly traded shares 1,579,000,000 100
Industrial production growth rate 7.20 (%) 36
Current account balance -2,354,000,000 143
Exports 4,385,000,000 120
Imports 6,739,000,000 112
Debt - external 2,564,000,000 139
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 4,620,000,000 86
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 95,000,000 83


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 4,480,000,000 (kWh) 122
Electricity - consumption 4,217,000,000 (kWh) 121
Electricity - imports 262,900,000 (kWh) 84
Electricity - installed generating capacity 833200 (kW) 128
Electricity - from fossil fuels 99.9 (% of total installed capacity) 47
Electricity - from other renewable sources 0.1 (% of total installed capacity) 93
Crude oil - production 6,983 (bbl/day) 85
Crude oil - exports 5,260 (bbl/day) 62
Refined petroleum products - consumption 21,610 (bbl/day) 127
Refined petroleum products - imports 15,730 (bbl/day) 116
Natural gas - imports 11,790 (cu m) 77
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 9,436,000 (Mt) 101


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 187,600 128
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,942,000 129
Internet hosts 20,084 118
Internet users 330,000 125


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 44 98
Railways 1,908 (km) 73
Roadways 49,249 (km) 79
Waterways 580 (km) 82
Merchant marine 57 68


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 0.80 (% of GDP) 150

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.