Discover Finland in Europe

Finland with its capital Helsinki is located in Europe (Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea). It covers some 337,031 square kilometres (slightly smaller than Montana) with 5,244,000 citizens. Finnish and Swedish are the languages spoken by people in Finland. Norway, Russia and Sweden are bordering countries.

Finland is in Northern Europe and has borders with Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and Sweden to the west. Not much is known about Finland's early history, with archaeologists still debating when and where a tribe of Finno-Ugric speakers cropped up. Roman historian Tacitus mentions a tribe primitive and savage Fenni in 100 AD and even the Vikings chose not to settle, trading and plundering along the coasts. Buffeted by its neighbors for centuries and absorbing influences from west, east and south, Finnish culture as a distinct identity was only born in the 19th century: we are not Swedes, and we do not wish to become Russian, so let us be Finns.

Pictures from the Finnish capital

Have a look at our dedicated photo collection to get a view of what Helsinki is like. We have selected more pictures from Helsinki on our dedicated gallery page.

Awesome photos provided by Panoramio are under the copyright of their owners.

Landscape, climate, hints for travelling

National Tourism Office

Website: Finland Tourism

Matkailun Keskusyksikko
Toolonkatu 11, PL 625
00101 Helsinki

Phone: +358 9 417 6911
Phone: +358 9 4176 9333

The terrain offers mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills. The average density of population is about 16 per km². The climate in Finland can be described as cold temperate with potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes. Possible natural disasters include NA.

To reach someone in Finland dial +358 prior to a number. There are 1,430,000 installed telephones. And there are 7,700,000 registered mobile phones. The cellular networks operate on frequencies of 900, 1800 MHz and 3G. Websites typically end with the top level domain ".fi". If you want to bring electric appliances (e.g. battery charger), keep in mind the local 230V - 50Hz.

Description of the flag of Finland

White with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter.

National administrative regions of Finland

Historical background information

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Demographic Information

Finland has 993 persons having reached the age of 100 years. Ladies make up for 858 of this count (which is 86%). 272,807 young citizens below the age of five (and make up for 5% of the total population). 10.4 babies are born per thousand citizens.

Finnish Age Distribution

Blue bars represent male citizens. Red bars represent female citizens. A pair or bars represents a single age group spanning five years each. Data has been released 2011.

Gender Distribution (Full Population)

Total share of male (blue) and female (red) citizens of the total population of Finland

Growth of Population (per thousands)

Babies born per thousand citizens (blue) and deaths (red) over the past ten years.

Geography And Economy Facts

Geographic Fact Data
Summary Continent: Europe
Neighbours: Norway, Russia, Sweden
Capital: Helsinki
Size 337,030 square kilometers (km² or sqkm) or 130,128 square miles (mi² or sqmi)
slightly smaller than Montana
Population 5,244,000

Economy Facts

Technology and Economy Data
Currency Name: Euro, Currency Code: EUR
Country Top Level Domain (cTLD) .fi
Telephone Country Prefix +358
Mobile Phone Connections 7,700,000
Landline Phone Connections 1,430,000
Military Spendings 2% (of GDP, Gross Domestic Product)

Country Position in World Rankings

Information about single country attributes and how these compare against the rest of the world. The information below is compiled with data from 2013. As such, it may differ a bit to the Information above in the text (which is from 2010).


Type of Data Value World Rank
Area 338,145 (sq km) 65

People and Society

Type of Data Value World Rank
Population 5,266,114 116
Population growth rate 0.06 (%) 186
Birth rate 10.36 (births/1,000 population) 185
Death rate 10.42 (deaths/1,000 population) 44
Net migration rate 0.62 (migrant(s)/1,000 population) 63
Maternal mortality rate 5.00 (deaths/100,000 live births) 177
Infant mortality rate 3.38 (deaths/1,000 live births) 213
Life expectancy at birth 79.55 (years) 41
Total fertility rate 1.73 (children born/woman) 166
Health expenditures 9.00 (% of GDP) 43
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.10 (%) 127
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 2,600 131
HIV/AIDS - deaths 100 131
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 23.00 (%) 77
Education expenditures 6.80 (% of GDP) 24
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 18.9 (%) 64


Type of Data Value World Rank
GDP (purchasing power parity) 200,700,000,000 56
GDP - real growth rate -0.20 (%) 186
GDP - per capita (PPP) 37,000 37
Labor force 2,679,000 108
Unemployment rate 7.30 (%) 81
Distribution of family income - Gini index 27 127
Investment (gross fixed) 20.00 (% of GDP) 95
Taxes and other revenues 51.7 (% of GDP) 14
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -1.80 (% of GDP) 82
Public debt 53.50 (% of GDP) 53
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.00 (%) 79
Central bank discount rate 1.75 (%) 117
Commercial bank prime lending rate 2.68 (%) 180
Stock of narrow money 117,000,000,000 31
Stock of broad money 183,400,000,000 44
Stock of domestic credit 257,800,000,000 38
Market value of publicly traded shares 118,200,000,000 40
Industrial production growth rate 1.50 (%) 124
Current account balance -3,600,000,000 155
Exports 72,700,000,000 49
Imports 72,230,000,000 42
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 9,900,000,000 74
Debt - external 599,300,000,000 23
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 84,320,000,000 44
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 148,800,000,000 25


Type of Data Value World Rank
Electricity - production 76,160,000,000 (kWh) 40
Electricity - consumption 77,660,000,000 (kWh) 37
Electricity - exports 5,218,000,000 (kWh) 29
Electricity - imports 15,720,000,000 (kWh) 11
Electricity - installed generating capacity 16320000 (kW) 44
Electricity - from fossil fuels 52.5 (% of total installed capacity) 153
Electricity - from nuclear fuels 16.4 (% of total installed capacity) 16
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 19.1 (% of total installed capacity) 93
Electricity - from other renewable sources 12.0 (% of total installed capacity) 20
Crude oil - imports 215,700 (bbl/day) 32
Refined petroleum products - production 301,500 (bbl/day) 46
Refined petroleum products - consumption 204,800 (bbl/day) 57
Refined petroleum products - exports 133,600 (bbl/day) 40
Refined petroleum products - imports 103,100 (bbl/day) 48
Natural gas - consumption 4,101,000,000 (cu m) 66
Natural gas - imports 4,101,000,000 (cu m) 36
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 54,400,000 (Mt) 59


Type of Data Value World Rank
Telephones - main lines in use 1,080,000 73
Telephones - mobile cellular 8,940,000 82
Internet hosts 4,763,000 22
Internet users 4,393,000 55


Type of Data Value World Rank
Airports 148 38
Railways 5,919 (km) 31
Roadways 78,141 (km) 59
Waterways 7,842 (km) 18
Merchant marine 97 51


Type of Data Value World Rank
Military expenditures 2.00 (% of GDP) 68

Based on the content from The original article can be found here based on the work of these users. Geography information is based on the data provided by, CIA world facts book Edition 2010, 2013 and 2014, Unesco, DBpedia, wikipedia, national statistical offices and their census releases as well as other sources.